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Abstract  

The new 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylates of lanthanide(III) of the formula Ln(btc)�nH2O, where btc is 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate; Ln is La-Lu, and n=2 for Ce; n=3 for La, Yb, Lu; and n=4 for Pr-Tm were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns. Polycrystalline complexes are isotructural in the two groups: La-Tm and Yb, Lu. IR spectra of the complexes show that all carboxylate groups from 1,2,4-benzentricarboxylate ligands are engaged in coordination of lanthanide atoms. The thermal analysis of the investigated complexes in air atmosphere was carried out by means of simultaneous TG-DTA technique. The complexes are stable up to about 30�C but further heating leads to stepwise dehydration. Next, anhydrous complexes decompose to corresponding oxides. The combined TG-FTIR technique was employed to study of decomposition pathway of the investigated complexes.

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Abstract

The thermal behaviour of three ester derivatives of p-tert-butyl calix[n]arene (n = 4, 6 and 8) in comparison with the parent calixarene was investigated by means of the thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetic (DTG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal stability domains, the composition of the pyrolysis products and the thermal effects, were determined on the basis of TG, DTG and DSC plots registered in nitrogen flow. Attempts to analyse the evolved gases by TG-FTIR coupling were also performed. It was demonstrated that the stability of the calix[n]arene derivatives depends on both the size of the hydrophobic cavity and number of the substituting groups grafted on the calix[n]arene skeleton.

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Abstract

Solid-state M-2-MeO-CP compounds, where M represents bivalent Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and 2-MeO-CP is 2-methoxycinnamylidenepyruvate, were synthesized for the first time. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, TG-FTIR system, elemental analysis and complexometry have been used to characterize and to study the thermal behaviour of the compounds. The dehydration in all the compounds, except for iron occurs in a single step. The thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occurs in two or three steps with the formation of the respective oxides, Mn3O4, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO and ZnO, as final residue. The results also provided information concerning the thermal behaviour and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the heating of these compounds.

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Abstract  

A novel PMR polyimides (TMBZ-15) based on substituted benzidines is examined and compared to state-of-the-art PMR-15. The mechanism for the thermal decomposition of two specific PMR polyimides is obtained using TG/FTIR/MS techniques. In order to verify the pathway of polyimide degradation, a pyrolysis/GC-MS technique was employed to evaluate the organic degradation products, particularly the larger components that are destroyed in traditional TG/MS. A proposed degradation mechanism involves two main stages of decomposition, each of which produce a variety of products. The first group includes aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines and nitriles, which correspond to partial fragments of polymer chains. The second group consists largely of fluorene, naphthalene and phenanthrene, which are attributed to the isomerization, rearrangements and cyclizations of the aforementioned pyrolyzates at high temperature.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: B. Zapata, J. Balmaseda, E. Fregoso-Israel, and E. Torres-García

Abstract  

Thermal degradation of orange peel was studied in dynamic air atmosphere by means of simultaneous TG-DSC and TG-FTIR analysis. According to the obtained thermal profiles, the orange peel degradation occurred in at least three steps associated with its three main components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). The volatiles compounds evolved out at 150–400 °C and the gas products were mainly CO2, CO, and CH4. A mixture of acids, aldehydes or ketones C=O, alkanes C–C, ethers C–O–C and H2O was also detected. The E α on α dependence reveled the existence of different and simultaneous processes suggesting that the combustion reaction is controlled by oxygen accessibility, motivated by the high evolution low-molecular-mass gases and volatile organic compounds. These results could explain the non-autocatalytic character of the reactions during the decomposition process.

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Abstract  

The effect on the stability of the isomers of aminosalicylic acid of formation of their sodium salts has been studied by use of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, coupled with evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy provided complementary information. The DSC curves for the sodium salts of all of the isomers showed complex dehydration/decomposition endotherms. From the initial mass losses of the TG curves, the amounts of water per mole of salt were estimated as 0.5, 2.4 and 1.4 moles for the sodium salts of 3-aminosalicylic acid, 4-aminosalicylic acid and 5-aminosalicylic acid, respectively. TG-FTIR results for the sodium salt of 3-aminosalicylic acid showed the evolution of carbon dioxide in three stages: below 150C, between 200 and 300C and continuous formation up to 500C. This behaviour differs from that of 3-aminosalicylic acid itself, which forms CO2 between 225 and 290C. For the sodium salt of 4-aminosalicylic acid, the formation of carbon dioxide starts from 250C and is still being formed at about 650C. 4-aminosalicylic acid decarboxylates above 150C. 5-aminosalicylic acid and its sodium salt showed no evolution of carbon dioxide below 600C.

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Abstract  

Two enantiomeric forms of xylose were identified as α-D-xylopyranose and α-L-xylopyranose by powder diffraction. Their melting behaviour was studied with conventional DSC and StepScan DSC method, the decomposition was studied with TG and evolved gases were analyzed with combined TG-FTIR technique. The measurements were performed at different heating rates. The decomposition of xylose samples took place in four steps and the main evolved gases were H2O, CO2 and furans. The initial temperature of TG measurements and the onset and peak temperatures of DSC measurements were moved to higher temperatures as heating rates were increased. The decomposition of L-xylose started at slightly higher temperatures than that of D-xylose and L-xylose melted at higher temperatures than D-xylose. The differences were more obvious at low heating rates. There were also differences in the melting temperatures among different samples of the same sugar. The StepScan measurements showed that the kinetic part of melting was considerable. The melting of xylose was anomalous because, besides the melting, also partial thermal decomposition and mutarotation occurred. The melting points are affected by both the method of determination and the origin and quality of samples. Melting point analysis with a standardized method appears to be a good measure of the quality of crystalline xylose. However, the melting point alone cannot be used for the identification of xylose samples in all cases.

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Abstract  

The cefadroxil (Cef) complexes with transition divalent metals of the formula MCefnH2O (where n=2 for M=Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and n=3 for Co2+) and CdCef1.54H2O were prepared and characterized by elemental and infrared spectra. The thermal analysis of the investigated complexes in air atmosphere was carried out by means of simultaneous TG-DSC technique. During heating in air they lose bound water molecules and then decompose to oxides: Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO and CdO. The CdCef1.54H2O complex forms probably an intermediate product Cd2OSO4. The combined TG-FTIR technique was employed to study of decomposition pathway of the investigated complexes. The first mass loss step is the water loss of the complexes. Next, decomposition of cefadroxil ligand occurs with evolution of CO2 and NH3. At slightly higher temperature COS is observed according to decomposition of cephem ring. Additionally, as decomposition gaseous products: HCN, HNCO (HOCN), H2CNH, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds were observed. The formation of metal sulfates is postulated as solid intermediate product of decomposition in the argon atmosphere.

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Abstract  

The thermal decomposition of strontium acetate hemihydrate has been studied by TG-DTA/DSC and TG coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) under non-isothermal conditions in nitrogen gas from ambient temperature to 600°C. The TG-DTA/DSC experiments indicate the decomposition goes mainly through two steps: the dehydration and the subsequent decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate into strontium carbonate. TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved products from the non-oxidative thermal degradation indicates mainly the release of water, acetone and carbon dioxide. The model-free isoconversional methods are employed to calculate the E a of both steps at different conversion α from 0.1 to 0.9 with increment of 0.05. The relative constant apparent E a values during dehydration (0.5<α<0.9) of strontium acetate hemihydrate and decomposition of anhydrous strontium acetate (0.5<α<0.9) suggest that the simplex reactions involved in the corresponding thermal events. The most probable kinetic models during dehydration and decomposition have been estimated by means of the master plots method.

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Abstract  

Two different poly(urethane acrylate) resins (one with a trimer: PUA1, the second with a dimer: PUA2) prepared [1] by photo curing reaction are investigated by means of thermogravimetry and thermomechanical measurements. The lack of mass loss found up to 300C for both systems shows their good thermal stability. Beyond this temperature, two mass losses occur consecutively. This mass loss already studied by TG-FTIR coupled measurements for PUA1 resin has been attributed to the degradation of carbonyl groups [1]. The extension to PUA2 and the comparison between the mass loss magnitude and the relative contain in acrylate of the resins leads to attribute the first degradation to the degradation of the acrylate fraction. The degradation of dimer based resin occurs earlier and with a faster kinetic than the trimer based resin. The variations of linear expansion and penetration coefficients measured by thermomechanical analysis (penetration probe) in the glassy state and in the glass transition temperature domain (the onset glass transition temperatures measured by DSC at 20C min–1 are respectively equal to 111 and 107C for PUA1 and PUA2, the transitions, not well defined, extending over 30C), show that despite of a weaker compactness, the trimer based resin is more rigid than the dimer one.

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