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Abstract  

SO4 2−/TiO2–MxOy (M = Zr, Ce, La) were prepared by the precipitation-impregnation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). Catalytic activities were evaluated in the acetalization of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) with acetaldehyde and hydrolysis of 2-methyl-1,3-dioxane (2MD). SO4 2−/TiO2–ZrO2 (STZ) exhibited the best catalytic activity both in the acetalization and hydrolysis. With the molar ratio of Zr4+/Ti4+ = 1:4, the highest yields were 96.45% in 3 h and 93.68% of 2MD hydrolyzed in 18 h, in contrast to the yields lower than 60% by using other superacids. These results are consistent with the strongest acidity of the superacid containing Zr4+ among prepared superacids containing other cations.

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Abstract  

Reaction kinetics of the formation of TiC by calciothermic reduction of TiO2 in presence of carbon have been investigated using thermal analysis (TG-DTA) of a powder mixture of TiO2, Ca, and C in argon atmosphere at different heating rates. Both the reaction initiation and the peak temperatures are found to increase with heating rates. The appearance of exothermic peaks in the DTA plots after Ca melting indicates the reduction of TiO2 by liquid calcium and formation of TiC by in-situ reaction of Ti with C. The apparent activation energy of the process has been found to be 170.80.5 kJ mol-1.

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Abstract  

TiO2–CeO2 oxides for application as ceramic pigments were synthesized by the Pechini method. In the present work the polymeric network of the pigment precursor was studied using thermal analysis. Results obtained using TG and DTA showed the occurrence of three main mass loss stages and profiles associated to the decomposition of the organic matter and crystallization. The kinetics of the degradation was evaluated by means of TG applying different heating rates. The activation energies (E a) and reaction order (n) for each stage were determined using Horowitz–Metzger, Coats–Redfern, Kissinger and Broido methods. Values of E a varying between 257–267 kJ mol–1 and n=0–1 were found. According to the kinetic analysis the decomposition reactions were diffusion controlled.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
V. Balek
,
N. Todorova
,
C. Trapalis
,
V. Štengl
,
E. Večerníková
,
J. Šubrt
,
Z. Malek
, and
G. Kordas

Summary Titania-based photocatalytic materials were prepared by sol-gel method using Fe3+ and polyethyleneglycol (PEG600) as additives. Thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) with MS detection were used to elucidate processes that take place during heating of Fe3+ containing titania gels. The microstructure development of the Fe2O3/TiO2 gel samples with and without PEG600 admixtures was characterized by emanation thermal analysis (ETA) under in situ heating in air. A mathematical model was used for the evaluation of ETA results. Surface area and porosity measurements of the samples dried at 120°C and the samples preheated for 1 h to 300 and 500°C were compared. From the XRD measurements it was confirmed that the crystallization of anatase took place after thermal heating up to 600°C.

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Abstract  

The effect of replacing 20 mol% of GeO2 by TiO2 on the properties of potassium germanate glass was investigated. The structure and devitrification behaviour of glasses were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that potassium titanium germanate has a higher glass transition temperature and a higher thermal stability vs. crystallization. The presence of two exothermic peaks on the DTA curve of potassium germanate glass indicates the complex crystallization process. The XRD pattern of this glass heated at the temperature of the first crystallization peak indicated that the GeO2 and K2Ge7O15 were formed. Only the K2TiGe3O9 phase was identified, in a case when potassium titanium germanate glass was heated at the temperature of the crystallization peak.

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Abstract  

The aim of our research was to prepare yellow pigments based on structure of pseudobrookite Fe2TiO5. Part of Fe was substituted with Li and Ti from Fe2TiO5 to Li0.05Fe0.07Ti2.44O5. Synthesis and pigmentary-application properties in the Li2O–Fe2O3–TiO2 system were studied for 800 and 900C using classical ceramic method of preparation. The main attention was aimed to usage of four different sources of titanium compounds as raw materials. We studied the influence of different sources of titanium compounds on the structural and the colour properties of the prepared pigments. The thermal analysis was used for characterization of titanium compounds and determination of their thermal stability.

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Abstract  

We report the optical absorption characteristics of highly porous, polycrystalline TiO2electrodes and the influence of hydrolysis period for the preparation processes by photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy together with photoelectrochemical (PEC) current ones. The PA spectra show peaks which are attributed to the lowest transition energy due to the quantum confinement effect. The peak intensity decreases with the increase of hydrolysis periods, indicating the possibilities of the changes in the thermal properties and the densities due to hydrolysis processes. The PEC spectra indicate that the photocurrent intensity also show peak and that of the longer hydrolysis periods is somewhat smaller than others, indicating the increase of interface states due to the formation of grain boundaries with the increase of hydrolysis processes.

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nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are of biggest ecotoxicological concern due to the rapid increase of anthropogenic input of nano-TiO 2 into the environment. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely used mineral oxide in the cosmetics

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Abstract  

Pellets of TiO2 thermally pretreated at 450 and 540°C and -irradiated were polarized by d. c. field. The depolarization curves were resolved into different first order components having two and three depolarization constants. By heating the polarized pellets the Current Glow Peak curves were recorded where there were only two peaks around 65 and 400°C in case of pellets heated at 450°C and heated at 540°C and irradiated; and one more additional peak around 20°C in case of pellets heated at 540°C and heated at 450°C and irradiated thereon. In addition to those signals of O 2 and Ti3+ reported earlier there were distinctly four more, signals at g 1.933 and g 2.03, 2.036 and 2.043 appeared in case of samples heated at 540°C and heated at 450°C and irradiated thereon. The signal at g1.933 is attributed to Ti3+ ions in new phase Ti4O7 developed in heating at 540°C or due to irradiation and the rest of the signals are due to O 2ad or O ad over the new phase near anion vacancy created.

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
Druval S. De Sá
,
Bojan A. Marinkovic
,
Eric C. Romani
,
Tommaso Del Rosso
,
Rodrigo O. M. A. de Souza
,
Alessandro Massi
, and
Omar Pandoli

We present prototyping of meso- and microfluidic photocatalytic devices, functionalized through incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and comparison of their efficiencies for the degradation of rhodamine B (10−5 mol/L). The prototyping of the photocatalytic devices involves simple and low-cost procedures, which includes microchannels fabrication on PDMS, deposition and impregnation of TiO2 on PDMS, and, finally, plugging on the individual parts. For the microfluidic device with 13 μL internal volume, photocatalytic TiO2–PDMS composite was sealed by another PDMS component activated by O2 plasma (PDMS–TiO2–PDMS). For the mesofluidic device, a homemade polyetheretherketone (PEEK) flow cell with 800 μL internal volume was screwed on a steel support with a glass slide and the photocatalytic composite. The photocatalytic activities of the devices were evaluated using two different pumping flow systems: a peristaltic pump and a syringe pump, both at 0.05 mL/min under the action of 365 nm ultraviolet (UV) light. The characterization of TiO2–PDMS composite was performed by confocal Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The photocatalytic microreactor was the most efficient, showing high organic dye photodegradation (88.4% at 12.5 mW/cm2).

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