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toward cited work as expressed in citation contexts, that is, the text surrounding references in scientific papers. Teufel ( 2010 ) has done important recent work on the machine recognition and automatic classification of references in scientific papers

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Abstract  

In this study the amount of “informal” citations (i.e. those mentioning only author names or their initials instead of the complete references) in comparison to the “formal” (full reference based) citations is analyzed using some pioneers of chemistry and physics as examples. The data reveal that the formal citations often measure only a small fraction of the overall impact of seminal publications. Furthermore, informal citations are mainly given instead of (and not in addition to) formal citations. As a major consequence, the overall impact of pioneering articles and researchers cannot be entirely determined by merely counting the full reference based citations.

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quality of titles can affect research articles’ impact. An informative and attractive title might lead to more use, which in turn is manifested in the number of downloads or citations the article receives. There are quite a number of factors that could

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publications and received citations. The number of publications ( N p ) is a quantitative indicator that does not value the scientific advance of the contribution. As qualitative indicators able to assess the impact, influence or visibility of a research, the

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Introduction Studies of the relationship between science and technology have appeared since the 1980s. Based on citation links between patents and scientific publications, Narin and Noma ( 1985 ) found an ever closer

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debates about the best approach to use to assess the academic quality of research. There is increasing discussion about how far citation analysis can be used but traditionally, most citation analysis that is used in research evaluation relies on simple

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, citations to journals and impact factors, and tested their compliance with Benford's law. Method We studied the number of articles published, citations received and impact factors of all journals indexed in the Science Citation

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entire scientific output of a country (particularly in western countries), this language effect directly influences the overall impact position of universities (van Leeuwen et al. 2001 ). This effect has serious consequences for all citation

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This paper presents the results of the citation study in 24 leading journals on chemical engineering for 1987. The selective methodology or the analysis of co-citation limited only to this discipline is based on relatively low thresholds of citation and co-citation. The established research fronts refer mostly to basic research. The flow of information and knowledge to chemical engineering is determined to the extent of 70–90% by the works in this very field, as is indicated by the analysis of citations. The geography of research fronts was determined. The USSR has a very low fraction of frontal papers. This can be explained by the publication of papers in Russian and by a large number of secondary and applied research. This type of research is revealed by frequent citation of books and a small fraction of highly cited papers.

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The techniques of co-citation clustering and citation context analysis are combined to concretely define the shared knowledge within a research specialty. The cluster for a large and fast moving biomedical specialty, recombinant-DNA, is presented in terms of the highly cited documents comprising it and their co-citation links. By examining citation contexts in the papers citing the highly cited documents, it is possible to label each of the documents in the cluster with its specific cognitive meaning for the citing authors. Co-citation contexts are used to reveal the relationships among the concepts symbolized by the highly cited documents, providing a cognitive equivalent of the co-citation links. This may open a new way to the investigation of the logic of conceptual change at the specialty level.

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