Pogna N E, J C Autran, F Mellini, D Lafiandra and P Feillet, 1990: Chromosome 1B-encoded gliadins and gluteninsubunits in durum wheat:genetics and relationship to gluten strength. J. Cereal Sci
Authors:M. Rajabi Hashjin, M.H. Fotokian, M. Agahee Sarbrzeh, M. Mohammadi, and D. Talei
Knowledge of morpho-protein patterns of genetic diversity improves the efficiency of germplasm conservation and development. The objective of present study was to evaluate 116 genotypes of Triticum turgidum from seven countries in terms of morphological traits and seed protein banding patterns. The results showed highly significant differences among the genotypes for the traits. The correlation between grain yield and weight per spike was significant and positive, while the correlation between days to heading, length of peduncle and plant height was significant and negative. The factor analysis classified the traits in to four main groups which accounted for 74.4% of the total variability. Sixteen allelic compositions were identified in the genotypes for high molecular weight glutenin subunits. The three alleles were present at the Glu-A1 locus and 8 alleles at Glu-B1. The null allele was observed more frequently than the 1 and 2 alleles. Two alleles, namely 17 + 18 and 20, represented more frequent alleles at Glu-B1 locus. The genetic variability in Glu-A1and Glu-B1 loci were 0.42 and 0.81, respectively. The cluster analysis based on morphological traits and HMW-GS clustered the genotypes in to six and seven groups, respectively. The results indicated the presence of high genetic variability among the genotypes. Our findings suggest that the plants belong to different clusters can be used for hybridization to generate useful recombinants in the segregating generations, the genetics and breeding programs for improvement of durum wheat.
Authors:S. Keskin Şan, Ö. Özbek, V. Eser, and B. Göçmen Taşkin
The objective of this study is the analysis of polymorphism in seed endosperm proteins (gliadins and glutenins) of Turkish cultivated einkorn wheat [Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum] landraces. The genetic diversity of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the gliadin proteins in 10 landrace populations of cultivated einkorn wheat, originating from Turkey, was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ammonium lactic acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), respectively. For glutenins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of genetic diversity and the mean value of average genetic diversity were detected as 3.50, 2.98, 0.65 and 0.28, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.57, while gene flow was 0.19 between populations. For gliadins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of total genetic diversity and the genetic diversity within population were detected as 2.00, 1.21, 0.17 and 0.15, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.08, whereas gene flow was 6.15 between populations. STRUCTURE is a software package program for population genetic analysis, was used to infer population structures of landraces populations. The optimum value for K was obtained as 10. Considering the high number of proteins and genetic variation, and increased interest in organic products, the farming of einkorn wheat should be supported and conservation of germplasm in landraces should be maintained as important genetic resources. The landraces germplasm should be conserved for future crop improvement processes.
Authors:G. Balázs, S. Tömösközi, A. Harasztos, V. Németh, Á. Tamás, A. Morgounov, I. Belan, W. Ma, and F. Békés
Based on previous research on validating lab-on-a-chip data on wheat protein analysis, a comprehensive work has been carried out with the intent to demonstrate the potential of the technique for wheat related fundamental research, breeding and food industry. Sample preparation and separation methodologies were investigated for the main wheat polypeptide classes: albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenin subunits (GS). The work was carried out on a sample population originated from Western Siberia with different genetic background providing data, and characterizing their potential interest for future breeding work. LOC results are compared with corresponding reference methods (MALDI-TOF and RP-HPLC). The research revealed that, the current technology is capable for fast profile analysis, recognizing the minor qualitative, and typical quantitative differences in the albumin and globulin protein composition. While the gliadin separation showed poor results, the method seems to be able to identify the high molecular glutenin allelic composition, and to differentiate some of the low molecular weight glutenin alleles, too. Our results provide new insights into a possible rapid and simple way for grain protein profiling.
Authors:S. Elfatih, Y. Peng, J. Ma, J. Peng, D. Sun, and W. Ma
A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.
This study was undertaken to investigate the allelic diversity in seed storage proteins in 11 substituted hexaploid triticale cultivars (all spring). These cultivars were developed at the Cereal Institute of Thessaloniki, Hellas, in the 1970s and 1980s, after selection on segregating material originating from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Seeds from each line were used to determine alleles at the loci for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS)
Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-R1
) and gliadins (the loci
). For this to be done, acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for gliadins and SDS-electrophoresis for high molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS) were applied. Analysis of the electrophoretic patterns obtained from the above-mentioned material revealed that only 5 out of the 11 cultivars were biochemically uniform (cv. ‘Vryto’, ‘Thisvi’, ‘Dada’, ‘Leto’ and ‘Ekate’). On the contrary, the rest of the cultivars, despite they were under seed production process, exhibited heterogeneity. Cv. ‘Dada’, which was found to be uniform, is of special interest, due to its productivity, especially under drought stress conditions.
Authors:A. shahnejat Bushehri, A. Salavati, B. yazdi Samadi, M. Hassani, and S. Shahnejat Bushehri
D’Ovidio, R., Porceddu, E., Lafiandra, D. 1994. PCR analysis of genes encoding allelic variants of high-molecular-weight gluteninsubunits at the Glu-D1 locous. Theor. Appl. Genet. 88 :175–180.