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The tissue expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in vertebrates, as well as their evolutionary tendencies and relation to histogenesis, especially in the reproductive system, are not entirely understood.The present research comprises a large-scale immunohistochemical study of HBGAA and B expression in ovaries and testicles of 14 species belonging to six classes of free-living vertebrates from Chondrichtyes to Mammalia .We present novel data for ABH antigen reactivity in reproductive organs of vertebrates which have not been studied so far. Our results suggest that HBGA are evolutionary stable structures, most possibly related to vitellogenesis in oocytes with high yolk content. The tendency observed in A and B antigen expression is mostly associated with the processes of gamete differentiation and vitellogenesis, rather than with the evolutionary development of vertebrate species.

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SIFamides form a group of highly conserved neuropeptides in insects, crustaceans, and chelicerates. Beyond their biochemical commonalities, the neuroanatomical distribution of SIFamide in the insect nervous system also shows a remarkable degree of conservation. Thus, expression of SIFamide has been found to be restricted to four neurons of the pars intercerebralis in different holometabolous species. By means of immunohistological stainings, we here show that in Manduca sexta, those four cells are complemented by additional immunoreactive cells located in the vicinity of the mushroom body calyx. Immunopositive processes form arborizations throughout the brain, innervating major neuropils like the antennal lobes, the central complex, and the optic neuropils.

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Birds from the temperate and cold zones show annual sexual activity accompanied by gonadal changes and fluctuation in their brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels. However, most of the studies were done on captive birds where the constant environment can profoundly modify periodical changes. Therefore our aim was to reveal annual variations of hypothalamic and gonadal changes in male, free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) captured directly from their natural environment. We analyzed hypothalamic GnRH-I immunoreactivity and testes volume. Four key time points of the active reproductive cycle and the photorefractory phase were studied. GnRH-I immunoreactivity was analyzed in the preoptic area (POA) and the median eminence (ME). Photorefractory birds (August) with regressed gonads had the lowest level of GnRH-I immunoreactivity compared to other birds from the active reproductive phases. These results suggest that parallel with the gonadal volume GnRH-I undergoes seasonal changes in adult male free-living European starlings.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Csaba Jakab
,
Attila Szász
,
Janina Kulka
,
Zsuzsa Schaff
,
Miklós Rusvai
,
Tibor Németh
, and
Péter Gálfi

This report describes a case of a canine cutaneous grade I mast cell tumour which developed within a lipoma in the right axillar region of an 8-year-old male Boxer. Immunohistologically, the neoplastic mast cells were positive for serotonin, CD45 vimentin and p53, and negative for lysozyme, CD3 and CD79a expression. The proliferation index of the mast cell tumour based on the Ki-67 antigen was 6.1%. Between the benign neoplastic lipocytes and mastocytoma tumour cells intratumoural microvessels were detected by immunohistochemical staining using CD31 and claudin-5 as markers for vascular endothelium.

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Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive disease was diagnosed in a herd containing only gilts. A single case of abortion occurred and no other disorder was evident in the herd. PCV2 antigen and/or DNA were detected in two aborted fetuses. One of the fetuses, revealing both PCV2 DNA and antigen, presented multinucleated giant cells, severe vascular lesions (intramural oedema, fibrinoid necrosis, mild lympho-histiocytic vasculitis, fibrin thrombi) and mild non-suppurative inflammation in the lungs. Other abortifacient infections were not found. This is the only report of PCV2-induced abortion in Hungary since 1999, when PCV2-associated disease was first discovered in the country.

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The disease induced by Bibersteinia trehalosi usually occurs in lambs. It is triggered by certain stress factors and often emerges in the form of severe outbreaks. In adult sheep, only sporadic cases have been reported so far. This paper reports a B. trehalosi-induced high-mortality case occurring only in adult sheep. Seventy out of 628 adult sheep (11%) died in the affected pen during the six days of the outbreak. None of the 146 lambs kept in the neighbouring pen showed any clinical signs during that period. Several preceding events (shearing, vaccination and antiparasitic treatment) can be regarded as factors predisposing to the disease. Five adult sheep (4 females and 1 male) were sent for laboratory examination. Clinical, gross pathological, histological and bacteriological examinations revealed results corresponding to those reported previously in lambs that had died of a B. trehalosi-induced septicaemia.

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Both resiniferatoxin (RTX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) have been reported to be effective in several clinical trials aiming to cure urinary bladder dysfunction. The goal of this experiment was to study the effect of intravesical administration of RTX and TTX on the chemical coding of paracervical ganglion (PCG) neurons that supply the urinary bladder in pigs. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the opioid family member Leu5-enkephalin (LENK) are both known for their regulatory effects in the function of the porcine genitourinary tract. The PCG neurons innervating the urinary bladder were identified by application of the retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB), injected into the bladder wall prior to intravesical RTX or TTX administration. Immunocytochemical detection of LENK and VIP expression in the FB-labelled perikarya revealed that in the control group 25.15% of the FB-positive PCG neurons contained LENK, and 9.22% of them expressed VIP. Intravesical infusion of RTX resulted in an increase in the number of LENKIR neurons to 48.19% and VIP-IR perikarya to 11.25%. Optional treatment with TTX induced increase of LENK-IR neurons up to 81.67% and VIP-IR population to 16.46% of the FB-positive PCG cells. The present results show that both neurotoxins affect the chemical coding of PCG nervous cells supplying the porcine urinary bladder and that they stimulate both LENK and VIP expression. Furthermore, the results indicate a possible involvement of LENK and VIP neurons in the mechanisms of action of RTX and TTX in the therapy of overactive bladder disorder.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Nalan Kabakci
,
Murat Yarim
,
Siyami Karahan
,
Tolga Guvenc
,
Burahan Bekir Yagci
, and
I. Safa Gurcan

The cerebella of 21 dogs with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection and four normal dogs were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Cerebella of CDV-infected dogs showed nonsuppurative demyelinating encephalomyelitis, classified as acute, subacute or chronic. Immunolocalisation of CDV antigen also confirmed the infection. Tissues were examined for co-localisation of the CDV antigen with either an astrocyte-specific marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or an oligodendrocyte-specific marker, galactocerebroside (GalC). Immunoreactive cells were counted in demyelinating areas of the white matter. The number of astrocytes (GFAP positive) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in CDV-infected dogs compared to controls. In contrast, the number of oligodendrocytes (GalC positive) was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in CDV-infected dogs and was much lower in chronic cases (p < 0.05). Approximately 41% of astrocytes and 17% of oligodendrocytes were immunoreactive for CDV. The ratio of CDV-infected oligodendrocytes and astrocytes remained almost constant during the progression of the disease (P ≯ 0.05). In conclusion, CDV infects both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The gradual loss of oligodendrocytes is most likely responsible for the progressive demyelination in CDV infection. Astrocytosis in CDV infection should be further investigated if it occurs to stimulate oligodendrocytes for myelin production to compensate for the loss or to induce oligodendrocyte degeneration.

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Claudins are key tight junctional proteins between adjacent epithelial, mesothelial or endothelial cells, which are responsible for the permeability of the paracellular space. This paper describes that the endothelial cells of normal hepatic arterioles, portal venules and portal lymphatics as well as the endothelium of sinusoids from dogs show strong membranous claudin-5 cross-reactivity. In 25 liver biopsy samples taken from dogs with portal vein hypoperfusion, an increased number of arterioles was detected in the portal areas (PAs) by the use of humanised anti-claudin-5 antibody. The increased number of hyperplastic hepatic arterioles per PA was 5–6, 8–12 and 15–20 in the case of small, medium-sized and large PAs, respectively. It is suggested that the claudin-5 marker can improve the detection of hepatic arteriolar proliferation in the PAs of liver samples.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Zsolt Becskei
,
Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
,
Miklós Rusvai
,
Gyula Balka
,
Csaba Jakab
,
Tamaš Petrović
, and
Milijana Knežević

The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.

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