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Abstract  

The combustion of two different sewage sludges and a semianthracite coal was studied and compared by thermogravimetric analysis. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential factor) of the combustion of these carbonaceous materials. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional methods for evaluating and comparing the corresponding activation energy of the combustion process.

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Abstract  

An incremental integral isoconversional method for the determination of activation energy as a function of the extent of conversion is presented. The method is based on the treatment of experimental data without their transformation so that the resulting values of activation parameters should not be biased. The method was tested for recovering the activation energies from simulated data and employed for the treatment of experimental data of the NiS recrystallisation.

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Abstract  

A variety of isoconversional and model fitting approaches, all of which use multiple heating schedules, are used to analyze selected data from the ICTAC kinetics and lifetime projects as well as additional simulated data sets created for this work. The objective is to compare the accuracy and suitability of various approaches for various types of chemical reactions. The various simulated data sets show that model fitting and isoconversional methods have comparable reliability for extrapolation outside the range of calibration. First, there is as much variability in prediction for various isoconversional methods as there is between isoconversional methods as a group and different plausible explicit models. Of the three isoconversional models investigated, the Friedman method is usually the most accurate. This is particularly true for energetic materials that have a drop in apparent activation energy in the latter stages of reaction, which leads to a delayed onset of rapid autocatalysis at lower temperatures. It is difficult to determine a priori whether isoconversional or model fitting approaches will give more accurate predictions. The greatest reliability is attained by using both the isoconversional and model fitting approaches on a combination of isothermal and constant heating rate data.

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Abstract  

Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) prills were prepared by emulsion crystallization and characterized by optical microscopic, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. The isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of ADN prills were studied by TG. The differential isoconversional method of Friedman (FR) and integral isoconversional method of Vyazovkin were used to investigate the dependence of activation energy (E a) with conversion (α) and the results were compared with literature data. The dependence of activation energy was also derived from isothermal data. A strong dependence of E a with α is observed for the ADN prills. All the methods showed an initial increase in E a up to α=∼0.2 and later decreases over the rest of conversion. The apparent E a values of FR method are higher than that of Vyazovkin method up to α=∼0.45. The calculated mean E a values by FR, Vyazovkin and standard isoconversional method for α between 0.05 and 0.95 were 211.0, 203.9 and 156.9 kJ mol−1, respectively.

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Abstract  

The kinetic parameters (reaction order, n, activation energy, E, pre-exponential factor, A, constant rate, k) for the dehydration step due to elimination of osmotic water and hydrogen-bounded water with the carboxylic groups, and for the anhydrifying step owing to the dehydration of two neighboring (-COOH) groups, were determined under non-isothermal conditions for some carboxylic resins with acrylic-divinylbenzene (DVB) matrix. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by means of isoconversional methods from (TG/DTG) thermal analysis data. The results show a dependence of the apparent kinetic parameters on the cross-linking degree, granulation, gel/macroporous matrix nature, exchange capacity and heating rate.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: V. Muşat, P. Budrugeac, R. Monteiro, E. Fortunato, and E. Segal

Abstract  

The isoconversional methods (Friedman (FR), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS)) were applied for evaluating the dependencies of the activation energy (E) on the mass loss (Δm) corresponding to the non-isothermal decomposition of two Zn acetate-based gel precursors for ZnO thin films whose preparation differs by the drying temperature of the liquid sol-precursor (125°C for sample A, and 150°C for sample B). Although both investigated samples exhibit similar decomposition steps, strong differences between E vs. Δm curves as well as among the characteristic parameters of the decomposition steps, directly evaluated from TG, DTG and DTA curves, were put in evidence.

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Abstract  

A modified isoconversional method is applied to perform the kinetic analysis of non-isothermal processes. The solidification process of a polyethylene glycol with a mean molecular of 4000 (PEG 4000) was here analyzed. It was stated that the Avrami model provides a good description of the solidification process. Temperature-cooling rate-transformation diagrams were constructed and there was a good agreement between experimental data and the calculated T-CR-T curves. Moreover, morphological qualitative analysis has been performed by means of scanning electron microscopy.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Vázquez, F. López-Suevos, J. González-Alvarez, and G. Antorrena

Summary  

Phenol-urea-formaldehyde-tannin (PUFT) adhesives have been prepared by copolymerization at room temperature of pine bark tannins with phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) prepolymers prepared under varying operating conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) have been used to analyse the curing of prepolymers and adhesives. DSC curves were obtained at three different heating rates and, by means of the Model Free Kinetics isoconversional method, chemical conversion vs. time at a given temperature was obtained. Mechanical conversion was calculated from DMA storage modulus data for those adhesives which gave the best results for plywood and MDF boards.

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Abstract  

The Eu tris(dibenzoylmethanato)phenanthroline complex doped xerogel has been synthesized by a catalyst-free sol-gel roure. The non-isothermal kinetic analysis is calculated by Friedman isoconversional method and multivariate non-linear regression method. The overall decomposition process below 600C is fitted by an Fn model (n order reaction), corresponding to the dehydration of the matrix, and a two-step consecutive reaction of Cn model (n order autocatalytic reaction), corresponding to the decomposition of organic complex. Correlation coefficient is 0.99986. The lifetime values of xerogel, defined as the 5% decomposition of europium organic complex, indicate that the xerogel can find application at near room temperature.

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Abstract  

The crystallization mechanism of the glass-ceramics obtained from Romanian (Şanoviţa) basalt in the presence of 3 and 5% CaF2 as nucleation agent has been investigated under non-isothermal conditions using DTA technique. The activation energies of the crystallization processes were calculated using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Starink and Tang isoconversional methods. The monotonous decreases in the activation energy (E a) with the crystallized fraction (α) confirms the complex mechanism of the glass-ceramics crystallization process. It has been proved that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model cannot be applied for the studied glass-ceramics crystallization process.

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