Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 383 items for :

  • "labour market" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract  

Although the statistics on science and engineering personnel inScience Indicators — 1976 can be used to trace changes in the supply and utilization of these personnel, very little is presented that would allow readers to discern the emergence of strengths or weaknesses in this area. The author suggests that the inclusion of a variety of indicators relating to age, quality and mobility of scientific personnel would be a useful addition to the chapter. Additional indicators of labor market change, such as salaries, would also be helpful for policy purposes.

Restricted access

The paper analyses the experiences of case studies with 120 families that belong to those who were hit hardest by the economic and social transition. The steadily disadvantageous situation of these families can be traced back to the labor market processes. Despite decreasing unemployment figures and several labor market programs there are still large groups - young people, women with small children, elderly middle-aged persons, the Roma - who can hardly reintegrate into permanent employment. For these people no good choices exist between low wages of available and often uncertain, formal and official jobs and between the irregular incomes from casual, precarious work supplemented with social allowances and benefits. The mobilization of all family resources, including often the work of children, may help to overcome daily problems of subsistence, however their family system is often in danger. Market instability, the loss of continuous income, health problems, tensions and emotional crisis situation often jeopardize the daily conduct of life, housing conditions and the future of children. In the lack of other subsistence strategies and family models this instability is going to be reproduced by the younger generations.

Restricted access
Educatio
Authors:
Csilla Czeglédi
and
Tímea Juhász

Absztrakt:

Napjainkban a munkaerőpiac egyre magasabb szintű digitális kompetenciával rendelkező munkavállalókat igényel. A piac igényei konkrétak, de kérdés, hogy a leendő munkavállalók vagy a munkaerőpiacon már aktívan jelen lévők mennyiben tudják teljesíteni ezt a követelményt. A felsőfokú végzettséggel rendelkezők körében 2019-ben felvett online kérdőíves felmérésünkben arra kerestük a választ, hogy a válaszadók munkahelyükön és otthon miként használják a kor digitális eszközeit, és miként értékelik a saját digitális kompetenciájukat. Az eredmények azt mutatták, hogy a diplomások magas szintű digitális kompetenciával rendelkeznek és képesek ezeket az ismereteket otthon és a munkahelyen is alkalmazni.

Open access

Akkoyounlu, S. - Vickerman, R. (2002): Migration and the Efficiency of European Labour Markets. University of Kent at Canterbury: Department of Economics. Migration and

Restricted access

The article gives a review of the main results of a research project on the job opportunities of arts and social science graduates in companies in four Western European countries. It deals particularly with comparing the factors in these countries which contribute to the graduates' success when applying for their first job after graduation and the reasons for having a position on an appropriate level with high income after several years of employment.

Restricted access

The paper aims to explore how factors of regional competitiveness are associated with the location of car manufacturing companies in the EU. Although the European automotive market can be characterized by an intense dynamics in terms of location choices, literature offers little empirical guidance on how regional factors influence the location of car manufacturers in the EU. This paper aims to fill this gap by combining regional competitiveness data on 276 EU regions with the actual location of all 269 production units of car manufacturing companies currently present in the EU. Logistic regression is used to discover significant relationships, while the comparative analysis of clusters of regions is meant to offer a more detailed understanding of the role of different location factors. Results of the analysis show that the most influential location factor is related to infrastructural development, but other competitiveness factors, such as regional innovation capabilities or labour market efficiency, might also play an important role.

Restricted access

While recent research on family business succession has focused on examining the importance of individual and family characteristics, the role of macroeconomic conditions has been often neglected. This paper investigates the impacts of macroeconomic conditions on family business heir's career choice intention using individual level cross-country data of 18 European countries for the year 2013. We find that the level of economic development measured by GDP per capita, growth of GDP per capita, and youth rate of unemployment influence a family business heir's career choice intention. We also demonstrate that beyond the cross-country differences in macroeconomic conditions, individual characteristics of siblings, age, gender, work experience in family business, and start-up time play an important role. To mitigate succession failures, policies towards business succession with related firm survival should be specifically designed depending on different macroeconomic and youth labour market conditions.

Restricted access

This paper deals with various aspects of the performance expected from some of the most relevant European institutions (monetary and tax authorities, unions) vis-a-vis alternative ones, from a macroeconomic point of view. The role of the rules (e.g. the Stability and Growth Pact) as a coordination device to deal with externalities arising from national fiscal policies is first considered and compared to explicit coordination. The priority given to price stability is then discussed together with the questions of reputation, credibility and the relationship with fiscal policy and labour markets. A conservative central bank eliminates the temptation to inflate, but is only a second-best solution for internalising the externalities arising from uncoordinated-wage bargaining. The paper finally discusses the consequences on growth of the stability pursued by actual European institutions. Some reflections on the ‘model’ adopted for shaping European institutions conclude the paper.

Restricted access

The structure of state socialism was stifled by totalitarian power yet inequalities persisted. The stratification by the 'character of the work done', a combination of power/authority, knowledge, working conditions etc. was veiled by the official ideology about the near-equality of two 'classes' and about the abolition of poverty. Social inequalities were studied in the 1960s and 1980s in these terms, showing a structure that was shifting upwards in two decades, where social distances decreased in some respects, but where the reproduction of inequalities already started, and the lack of freedom was increasingly keenly felt. The structure of new capitalism seems to b based on capital ownership and the position on the labor market, though the old professional categories still have some validity. The new structure produces much larger inequalities and new forms of poverty. The threat of lasting poverty and exclusion looms large.

Restricted access

The present article drafts the changes that have taken place in German labour-force structure and labour market in the recent decades. Notwithstanding former trends, the number of university graduates started to decrease in the last five years. As reasons for this the author marks three main factors: demographic trends, decreasing interest in university carriers and the growing ratio of drop-outs. Considering vocational groups, he points out that indirect services and manufacturing cum maintenance services are on the rise, while regarding qualification groups he puts emphasis on the spreading of dual vocational education. In connection with this, the concept of “high-quality well-educated intellectuals” is revised, broadening the category to include also higher educational forms else than university and college education. The article also includes a comparison with an earlier prediction, concluding that automation had greater effects on the structure of labour than formerly expected.

Restricted access