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, A. , Shargie , N.G. , Van Biljon , A. , Labuschagne , M.T. 2012 . Diversity in starch, protein and mineral composition of sorghum landrace accessions from Ethiopia . J. Crop Sci. Biotech. 15 : 275 – 280

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. Talas , F. , Longin , F. , Miedaner , T. 2011 . Sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight within Syrian durum wheat landraces . Plant Breeding 130 : 398 – 400

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Khazaei, H., Monneveux, P., Hongbo, S., Mohammady, S. (2010) Variation for stomatal characteristics and water use efficiency among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Iranian wheat landraces. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 57 , 307

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., Qian, Q., Zhang, Q., Li, J., Han, B. (2010) Genome-wide association studies of 14 agronomic traits in rice landraces. Nature Genetics 42 , 961–967. Han B. Genome-wide association

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. Szabó , Z. , Gyulai , G. , Humphreys , M. , Horváth , L. , Bittsánszky , A. , Lágler , R. and Heszky , L. ( 2005 ): Genetic variation of melon (C. melo) compared to an extinct landrace from the Middle Ages (Hungary) I. rDNA, SSR and SNP

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119 1073 1082 Stodart, B. J., Raman, H., Coombes, N. and Mackay, M. (2007): Evaluating landraces of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. for tolerance to

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Anabel Cruz-Romero, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, and Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano

males. The great majority ( n = 269) of pigs were mixed-breed, 35 were Yorkshire, and one was Landrace. Environment characteristics of the municipalities surveyed including climate, mean annual temperature and rainfall, and altitude (meters above sea

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: S. Šliková, M. Havrlentová, P. Hauptvogel, Ľ. Mendel, E. Gregová, and V. Šudyová

Winter wheat landraces and modern Slovak cultivars were inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium culmorum Sacc. by spraying in May 2008, in plot experiments under natural conditions in Piešťany, Slovakia. The objective was to examine the responses of the tested genotypes to inoculation with F. culmorum and to determine changes in the β-D-glucan content in the kernels. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and the β-D-glucan and deoxynivalenol (DON) contents in the grains were determined using Megazyme and Ridascreen® Fast DON assay kits. Wheat landraces had lower AUDPC and FDK, and accumulated 67.4% less DON than modern cultivars. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) between AUDPC and DON content, between FDK and DON, and between AUDPC and FDK. The correlation between β-D-glucan content and AUDPC was also significant (P < 0.05), but not correlations between β-D-glucan and other traits. The β-D-glucan content in the grain of wheat genotypes artificially inoculated with F. culmorum was lower than in grains without infection. The wheat landraces contained more β-D-glucan than modern cultivars and showed higher resistance to F. culmorum. The three wheat landraces had significantly lower spike and kernel infection compared to modern cultivars and could be used to breed elite cultivars with enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance.

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. – Mol. Ecol . 14 : 1121 – 1132 . 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2005.02484.x Neelamraju , S . and Neeraja , C. N . ( 2005 ): Use of anchored (AG) n and (GA) n primers to assess genetic diversity of Indian landraces and varieties of rice . – Curr. Sci . 89

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Díaz De León, R. Escoppinichi, R. Zavala-Fonseca, T. Castellanos, M. Röder, and A. Mujeeb-Kazi

To determine limits of tolerance, provide information about genetic diversity, and explore potential as progenitors for a salt-tolerant wheat improvement program, we collected several landraces and genotypes reputed to be salt-tolerant. Salt tolerance was tested by irrigation with a diluted solution of seawater with 12 dS.m −1 electrical conductivity for two years. Phenotypic parameters of percent of emergence, days to flowering to spike emergence, and physiological maturity were not significantly affected. Leaf area was sensitive to salt stress and inhibited about 30%. Plant height was inhibited 30%, while spike length and number of grains per spike were not. Total yield of Shorawaki and Kharchia landraces confirmed their reputation as salt-tolerant. Cultivars Mepuchi, Pericu, Calafia, WH157, and SNH-1 were inhibited at a moderate level of tolerance; cultivars Cochimí, Lu26S, and KRL 1–4 were inhibited, as was the control cultivar Oasis by up to 50%. To amplify microsatellites from genomes A, B, and D, 33 pairs of primers were used. The microsatellite WMS169-6A was highly polymorphic, with 10 different alleles distinguishing the genotype set. Also, the short arm of chromosome 4D microsatellites were amplified and found to be monomorphic, which suggests highly conserved alleles. The other microsatellites had variable polymorphism. In total, 120 alleles were obtained and used to define genetic diversity. The resulting dendrogram showed that landraces Shorawaki and Kharchia are distantly grouped from all other cultivars, as well as the cultivar Chinese Spring. Strikingly, KRL1–4, a derivative of Kharchia, did not show a close relationship to its source. The geographic origin did not influence pair-wise combinations. However, pedigree did influence pair-wise combinations.

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