Forest biomes have expanded and contracted in response to past climate fluctuations, but it is not clear how they will respond to human-induced atmospheric change. We provide a review of the literature, describing historical links between biogeographical and atmospheric patterns, comparing characteristics of forest biomes and describing expected changes in climate forcings from observed range shifts. Over the geological history, climate fluctuations prompted changes in forest distribution that, in turn, stabilized the atmosphere. Over the past century, warming-induced stress has caused widespread declines of mature forests, but new forests have expanded into open areas of boreal, tropical and temperate regions. Historically, forest expansion happened at much faster rates in cold than in warm regions. Across biomes, species interactions control the use of limiting resources, regulating community dynamics and expansion rates in response to climate variability. Modern impacts of land use change on the distribution of forest biomes are well understood, but the expansion of new forests and their role in stabilizing the atmosphere are yet to be accounted for in global models. Expansion of tropical and temperate forests would yield a negative climate forcing through increased carbon sequestration and evaporative cooling, but in the boreal region forest expansion could amplify climate warming due to changes in albedo. Although qualitative descriptions of forest-atmosphere interactions are possible based on existing records, the net climate forcing from forest range shifts remains uncertain. Three critical gaps in knowledge hinder rigorous evaluations of causality necessary to probe for linkages between climatic and biogeographical patterns: (i) reconstructions of vegetation dynamics have not sufficiently represented warm biomes; (ii) climate and vegetation dynamics are typically assessed at non-comparable scales; and (iii) single-proxies are normally used to simultaneously infer changes in climate and vegetation distribution, leading to redundancy in interpretation. Addressing these issues would improve our ability to decipher past and predict future outcomes of forest-atmosphere interactions.
Species richness in an assemblage is frequently used as a measure of biological diversity. However, observed species richness is strongly dependent on sample size. If more samples are collected, then more species are observed. Non-parametric species richness estimators, such as the jackknife 1 and 2 and the Chao 1 and 2, are indicated in the literature as potential solutions to the problem of dependence of observed species richness on sampling effort. These methods are intended to estimate the total species richness in an area or assemblage with small sampling effort. Non-parametric estimators are based on the number of species observed, and the number of rare species in a sample, i.e., that occurred in one and/or two sampling units, or with one and/or two individuals. High estimates are produced when samples contain large proportions of rare species. Using a range of real datasets, I show that estimates produced by non-parametric methods are generally dependent on observed species richness. An implicit assumption of these non-parametric techniques is that the rare species curve should present high values at small sample sizes and decreasing values as sampling effort is increased. This assumption was observed in only one out of eight datasets presented. Instead, the rare species curve generally flattens off around a constant value as sampling effort increases. I conclude that non-parametric estimators are not reliable to estimate species richness in an assemblage when the rare species curve does not show a decreasing trend. Comments are made on the possibilities of using non-parametric estimators in the comparison of species assemblages.
Authors:A. Nyéki, G. Milics, A.J. Kovács, and M. Neményi
This paper reviews the works related to the effect of soil compaction on cereal yield and focuses on research of field experiments. The reasons for compaction formation are usually a combination of several types of interactions. Therefore one of the most researched topics all over the world is the changes in the soil’s physical and chemical properties to achieve sustainable cereal production conditions. Whether we are talking about soil bulk density, physical soil properties, water conductivity or electrical conductivity, or based on the results of measurements of on-line or point of soil sampling resistance testing, the fact is more and more information is at our disposal to find answers to the challenges.
Thanks to precision plant production technologies (PA) these challenges can be overcome in a much more efficient way than earlier as instruments are available (geospatial technologies such as GIS, remote sensing, GPS with integrated sensors and steering systems; plant physiological models, such Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), which includes models for cereals etc.). The tests were carried out first of all on alteration clay and sand content in loam, sandy loam and silt loam soils. In the study we examined especially the change in natural soil compaction conditions and its effect on cereal yields.
Both the literature and our own investigations have shown that the soil moisture content changes have the opposite effect in natural compaction in clay and sand content related to cereal yield. These skills would contribute to the spreading of environmental, sustainable fertilizing devoid of nitrate leaching planning and cereal yield prediction within the framework of the PA to eliminate seasonal effects.
Literature Bozai , J. ( 1974 ): Újabb adatok Magyarország Tetranychoidea faunájához (Acari). (Neue Angaben zur Kenntnis der Tetranychoiden-Fauna Ungarns (Acari) .) Folia Entomol. Hung. , 27 , 5 – 7 . Canestrini , G. and Fanzago , F
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-H. Jang, D. Liu, J. Halda, P.-E. Persson, M. Hansson, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, and J.-S. Hur
Three new genera Coppinsidea, Vandenboomia and Wolseleyidea are described and the genera Ivanpisutia, Lecaniella and Myrionora are resurrected on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Ramalinaceae including the nuclear protein-coding marker rpb2, the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the small mitochondrial subunit. The genus Hertelidea was positioned within the Ramalina clade of the phylogenetic tree of the Ramalinaceae. Bacidia sipmanii, Phyllopsora chlorophaea, P. castaneocincta and Ramalina subbreviuscula were recorded from South Korea for the first time here confirming by molecular data, too.
Forty-eight new combinations are proposed: Bacidia alnetorum (basionym: Biatora alnetorum S. Ekman et Tønsberg), Biatora amazonica (basionym: Phyllopsora amazonica Kistenich et Timdal), Biatora cuyabensis (basionym: Lecidea cuyabensis Malme), Biatora halei (basionym: Pannaria halei Tuck.), Biatora kalbii (basionym: Phyllopsora kalbii Brako), Biatora subhispidula (basionym: Psoroma subhispidulum Nyl.), Coppinsidea alba (basionym: Catillaria alba Coppins et Vězda), Coppinsidea aphana (basionym: Lecidea aphana Nyl.), Coppinsidea croatica (basionym: Catillaria croatica Zahlbr.), Coppinsidea fuscoviridis (basionym: Bilimbia fuscoviridis Anzi), Coppinsidea pallens (basionym: Bilimbia pallens Kullh.), Coppinsidea ropalosporoides (basionym: Gyalidea ropalosporoides S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Coppinsidea scotinodes (basionym: Lecidea scotinodes Nyl.), Coppinsidea sphaerella (basionym: Lecidea sphaerella Hedl.), Ivanpisutia hypophaea (basionym: Biatora hypophaea Printzen et Tønsberg), Ivanpisutia ocelliformis (basionym: Lecidea ocelliformis Nyl.), Lecaniella belgica (basionym: Lecania belgica van den Boom et Reese Naesb.), Lecaniella cyrtellina (basionym: Lecanora cyrtellina Nyl.), Lecaniella dubitans (basionym: Lecidea dubitans Nyl.), Lecaniella erysibe (basionym: Lichen erysibe Ach.), Lecaniella hutchinsiae (basionym: Lecanora hutchinsiae Nyl.), Lecaniella naegelii (basionym: Biatora naegelii Hepp), Lecaniella prasinoides (basionym: Lecania prasinoides Elenkin), Lecaniella sylvestris (basionym: Biatora sylvestris Arnold), Lecaniella tenera (basionym: Scoliciosporum tenerum Lönnr.), Mycobilimbia albohyalina (basionym: Lecidea anomala f. albohyalina Nyl.), Mycobilimbia cinchonarum (basionym: Triclinum cinchonarum Fée), Mycobilimbia concinna (basionym: Phyllopsora concinna Kistenich et Timdal), Mycobilimbia ramea (basionym: Bacidina ramea S. Ekman), Mycobilimbia siamensis (basionym: Phyllopsora siamensis Kistenich et Timdal), Myrionora australis (basionym: Biatora australis Rodr. Flakus et Printzen), Myrionora ementiens (basionym: Lecidea ementiens Nyl.), Myrionora flavopunctata (basionym: Lecanora flavopunctata Tønsberg), Myrionora globulosa (basionym: Lecidea globulosa Flörke), Myrionora hemipolia (basionym: Lecidea arceutina f. hemipolia Nyl.), Myrionora lignimollis (basionym: Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. et Printzen), Myrionora malcolmii (basionym: Phyllopsora malcolmii Vězda et Kalb), Myrionora vacciniicola (basionym: Lecidea vacciniicola Tønsberg), Phyllopsora agonimioides (basionym: Coenogonium agonimioides J. P. Halda, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur), Phyllopsora sunchonensis (basionym: Agonimia sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur), Vandenboomia chlorotiza (basionym: Lecidea chlorotiza Nyl.), Vandenboomia falcata (basionym: Lecania falcata van den Boom, M. Brand, Coppins, Magain et Sérus.), Wolseleyidea africana (basionym: Phyllopsora africana Timdal et Krog), Wolseleyidea byssiseda (basionym: Lecidea byssiseda Nyl. ex Hue), Wolseleyidea canoumbrina (basionym: Lecidea canoumbrina Vain.), Wolseleyidea furfurella (basionym: Phyllopsora furfurella Kistenich et Timdal), Wolseleyidea ochroxantha (basionym: Lecidea ochroxantha Nyl.), and Wolseleyidea swinscowii (basionym: Phyllopsora swinscowii Timdal et Krog). The combination Biatora longispora (Degel.) Lendemer et Printzen is validated here. The new names Biatora vezdana for Lecania furfuracea Vĕzda and Coppinsidea vainioana for Lecidea sphaeroidiza Vain. are proposed. The phenomenon of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen association, i.e. DNA, belonging neither to mycobiont nor photobiont or to endophytic fungi is for the first time illustrated. So the presence of nrITS and mtSSU sequences of crustose lichen Coppinsidea ropalosporoides in thalli of crustose Verrucaria margacea and foliose Kashiwadia orientalis, as well as nrITS of Phyllopsora sp. KoLRI in Agonimia pacifica and Biatora longispora, or nrITS and mtSSU of Biatora longispora in thalli of Agonimia pacifica, Oxneriopsis oxneri and Pyxine limbulata, Ivanpisutia oxneri in thalli of Rinodina xanthophaea, etc. is documented. Scarce cases of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in representatives of the Teloschistaceae, Physciaceae known from literature data are discussed, too.
., Hill, M. O. and Smith, A. J. E. (1981): Mosses of Europe and the Azores, an annotated list of species, with synonyms from the recent literature. - J. Bryol. 11: 609-689.
Mosses of Europe and the Azores, an annotated list of
Kürschner, H. and Erdağ, A. (2005): Bryophytes of Turkey: An annotated reference list of the species with synonyms from the Recent literature and an annotated list of Turkish Bryological Literature. —
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