This paper examines general characteristics of African science from a quantitative ‘scientometric’ perspective. More specifically,
that of research outputs of Africa-based authors published in the scientific literature during the years 1980–2004, either
within the international journals representing ‘mainstream’ science, or within national and regional journals reflecting ‘indigenous
science’. As for the international journals, the findings derived from Thomson Scientific’s Citation Indexes show that while
Africa’s share in worldwide science has steadily declined, the share of international co-publications has increased very significantly,
whereas low levels of international citation impact persist. A case study of South African journals reveals the existence
of several journals that are not processed for these international databases but nonetheless show a distinctive citation impact
on international research communities.
Authors:B. S. Kademani, Vijai Kumar, Anil Sagar, and Anil Kumar
This paper attempts to highlight quantitatively the growth and development of world literature on thorium in terms of publication
output as per Science Citation Index (1982-2004). During 1982-2004 a total of 3987 papers were published by the scientists
in the field 'thorium'. The average number of publications published per year were 173. The highest number of papers 249 were
published in 2001. The spurt in the literature output was reported during 1991-2004.There were 94 countries involved in the
research in this field. USA is the top producing country with 1000 authorships (21.11%) followed by India with 498 authorships
(10.51%). Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers. Intensive collaboration was found during 1990-2004.One
paper 'Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research - A 406 (3) (1998) 411-426' had 64 collaborators. There were 586 international collaborative papers. Bilateral collaboration accounted
for 80.55 percent of total collaborative papers. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India) topped the list with 153 authorships
followed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) with 105 authorships.The most preferred journals by the scientists were: Journal of Radioanalytical Nuclear Chemistry with 181 papers, Radiochimica Acta with 139 papers, Journal of Radioanalytical Nuclear Chemistry -Articles with 127 papers, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta with 96 papers, Health Physics with 91 papers, Applied Radiation and Isotopes with 88 papers, Journal of Alloys and Compounds with 65 papers, Earth and Planetary Science letters with 59 papers and Chemical Geology, Indian Journal of Chemistry -A, Radiation Protection Dosimetry with 55 papers each. English was the most predominant language used by the scientists for communication. The high frequency
keywords were: Thorium (500), Uranium (284), Separation (94), Thorium Isotopes (90), Thorium (IV) (86), Seawater (73), Solvent
Extraction (70), and Rare Earth Elements (68).
A literature review uncovered six distinctive indicators of failed information epidemics in the scientific journal literature:
(1) presence of seminal papers(s), (2) rapid growth/decline in author frequency, (3) multi-disciplinary research, (4) epidemic
growth/decline in journal publication frequency, (5) predominance of rapid communication journal publications, and (6) increased
multi-authorship. These indicators were applied to journal publication data from two known failed information epidemics, Polywater
and Cold Nuclear Fusion. Indicators 1-4 were distinctive of the failed epidemics, Indicator 6 was not, and Indicator 5 might
be. Further bibliometric study of these five indicators in the context of other epidemic literatures needed.
This paper investigates, through an analysis of the published literature, the notion held by several people that HIV/AIDS
in Africa is unique. Using co-word and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of MEDLINE-extracted HIV/AIDS records, this
study used five lists of terms to investigate the related-ness of various factors and diseases to HIV/AIDS. The lists consisted
of risk factors, sexually transmitted diseases, tropical diseases, opportunistic diseases, and pre-disposing factors. Data
(i.e. words.txt — consisting of keywords/phrases describing the aforementioned factors and diseases; and text.txt — containing
HIV/AIDS papers’ titles) were analyzed using TI computer-aided application software, developed by Leydesdorff. Results revealed
that several factors and diseases that are pre-dominant in Sub-Saharan Africa exhibited strong and high pattern of co-occurrences
with HIV/AIDS, implying close associated-ness with the epidemic in the region. Further areas of research, whose results will
be used to make conclusive observations and arguments concerning the uniqueness of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, are recommended.
Authors:Candan Gokceoglu, Aral Okay, and Ebru Sezer
We investigated the publication trends in the international earth science literature coming out of Turkey in the period of
1970–2005 using the Science Citation Index Expanded database. A database of 2310 earth science publications with at least
one of the authors with an address in Turkey was compiled. The number of earth science publications from Turkey shows a very
rapid increase starting in the 1990’s in parallel with the increase in the total scientific output of Turkey. In the last
decade the annual growth rate has been 16%. There was also a concomitant increase in the number of citations. The causes of
the sharp increase in the publication numbers are, in order of importance, changes in the rules of academic promotion and
appointment, changes in academic attitudes towards publishing, increasing support for research, financial incentives for publishing,
and expansion of higher education. However, the sharp increase in the publication numbers was not accompanied by a similar
increase in the impact of the publications as measured by the citations. Although publications with first authors from outside
Turkey make up only 20% of the Turkish earth science publications in the period 1970–2005, these account for 38% of the total
citations, and constitute 48 out of 100 most cited papers.
The contribution of Turkish researchers to sciences is increasing. Turkish scientists published more than 6.000 articles in
1999 in scientific journals indexed by the Institute for Scientific Information"s Science Citation Index, which puts Turkey to the 25th place in the world rankings in terms of total contribution to science. The number of biomedical publications authored by
Turkish scientists is increasing faster than that of engineering and other non-medical sciences, which might be one of the
main causes of the steep rise in Turkey"s rankings that we have been witnessing in recent years. More specifically, researchers
affiliated with Hacettepe University produce almost a quarter of all the biomedical publications of Turkey that appear in
international biomedical literature. In this paper, we report the findings of the bibliometric characteristics (authors and
affiliations, medical journals and their impact factors, among others) of a total of 1.434 articles published between 1988
and 1997 by scientists affiliated with Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine and indexed in MEDLINE, a well-known biomedical
This paper examines the contribution of Indian universities to the mainstream scientific literature during 1987–1989 along two distinct, but inter-related dimensions of quantity and quality of research output. The quantity of output is assessed through the number of articles published in journals covered byScience Citation Index, while the quality of output is assessed through the impact factors of journals in which the articles are published. The impact factors are normalized to eliminate the confounding effects of their covariates,viz. the subject field and the nature of journal. A number of relative indicators are constructed for inter-field and inter-institution comparisons,viz. publication effectiveness index,1 relative quality index,2 activity index3 and citability index4. Inter-field comparisons are made at the level of eight macrofields: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Sciences, Agriculture, Medical Sciences and Engineering & Technology. Inter-institution comparisons cover thirty three institutions which had published at least 150 articles in three years. The structure of correlations of these institutions with eight macrofields is analyzed through correspondence analysis of the matrices of activity and citability profiles. Correspondence analysis yields a mapping of institutions which reveals the structure of science as determined by the cumulative effect of resource allocation decisions taken in the past for different fields and institutions i.e. the effect of national science policy.
Authors:R. Srinivasan, Vidyalakshmi Raman, N. Meyyappan, and P. Pichappan
Comparative assessment of the journal literature produced by laboratories/institutions working in different fields is a difficult
exercise. The impact factor of the journals is not a suitable indicator since citation practices vary with fields. The variation
is corrected in this study using a measure, the “subfield corrected impact factor” and it is applied to the journal papers
produced by the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories. This measure helped to compare the impact
of journal literature in different fields.
It is commonly stated and believed that scholarly and scientific journal literature is growing exponentially. To obtain a truer picture of the situation, a study was made of a sample of 190 journals that started life in or before 1950, 20 in each of 9 subject fields, plus 10 extra in literature. The number of articles in each journal in 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1987 was counted. The analysis showed a rapid growth in most subjects up to 1970, a much slower growth between 1976 and 1980, and a slow growth or decline between 1980 and 1987; the fields of decline included general and physical science and technology. The total number of journals is still increasing, but the rate of growth has dropped dramatically over the last ten years. Although it is possible that more recently established journals would show a different pattern, it seems likely that the overall rate of growth of the total number of journal articles is slow.
A multisynchronous obsolescence study has been performed on two computing journals that publish on technical aspects of computer system management (networks and operating systems). This area of computer science is found to have a relatively high obsolescence rate (a median citation rate of four years). This rate is similar to that of fields in engineering and the technology-dependent hard sciences.