Eighteen trace elements in biological material [grass /Imperata cylindrica/, mimosa plant /Mimosa pudica/, rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis, we found the content of the same elements was different in the each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied.
Authors:S. Al-Jobori, R. Itawi, M. Jalil, A. Saad, and K. Ali
Vegetable samples collected from different locations in Iraq have been analyzed by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of its content of major, minor and trace elements. Twenty types of vegetables have been analyzed and the concentrations of sixteen elements are presented.
The concentrations of REE and other trace elements have been determined in samples of Antarctica by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were collected from the West Lake area near Great Wall Station. The samples include sediment, residual plants, rock and soil taken from the bottom of the lake to 3.4 m deep. The amounts of samples were very rare. In order to get more information, reactor NAA using both short and long irradiations with K0 standardization has been adopted. Nine rare-earth elements (REE) namely La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, and Lu as well as other trace elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, Sc, Se, Th, V, Zn) have been determined. The concentrations and distribution patterns of REE in the samples have been given.
Authors:J. Kuncíř, J. Benada, Z. Řanda, and M. Vobecký
The use of high-resolution Ge(Li) detectors in non-destructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of mineral
materials makes possible the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements. In routine applications of INAA the
use of a multi-element standard (MES) has proved to have advantages over a set of standards for each determined element. An
MES has been prepared containing 8 trace elements mixed in a suitable proportion and giving, after neutron activation, long-lived
γ-emitters, the γ-ray lines of which regularly occur in the γ-ray spectra of silicate mineral materials. This method has been
used in the determination of Sc, Cr, Co, Rb. Cs, Eu, Hf and Th in samples of standard rocks and moldavites.
Differently corroded glass-pieces of Roman, mediaeval and baroque origin were inspected by light and electron microscopes
and afterwards several impurities determined semi-quantitatively in the glass matrix and corrosion layers by neutron activation
analysis. Sodium glasses contained in general less trace elements and proved to be more resistant against corrosion and devitrification
than potassium glasses which showed a high content of foreign elements. In the intermediate layers between glass and corrosion
products not only an increased number of impurities was detected, but also an enrichment factor of about 20 in comparison
to the glass matrix was found. According to the observed relation between content of trace elements and degree of corrosion,
impurities seem to deteriorate the long term stability of a glass matrix.
Authors:Kh. Rezaee, M. Abdi, E. Saion, K. Naghavi, and M. Shafaei
In order to complete having data base of elemental assessment of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia marine sediments along
the South China Sea coasts, trace elements are analyzed and their distribution in marine sediments is undertaken. The present
study is done parallel with pervious study on elemental assessment of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides in the
marine sediments of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty surface sediment samples were collected in this area, including
regions of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Rompin and Johor Baharu. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental
neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In both cases methodology validation
was performed by certified reference material analyses. For the surface elemental distributions the enrichment factor values,
average Igeo and mCd values indicate that the trace elements of the surface sediments are uncontaminated in all sampling stations that are consistent
with previous studies results of heavy metals, rare earth elements and actinides.
Authors:I. O. Abugassa, S. O. Abugassa, Y. S. Khrbish, A. T. Bashir, K. Doubali, and N. Ben Faid
The trace elements composition of gallbladder stones samples of the types cholesterol, pigment and mixed stones in addition
to bile have been investigated by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA). The samples were obtained from several individuals of adult subjects of the Libyan population who undergone open surgery
of gallbladder (cholecystectomy) at Al-khadra University Hospital in Tripoli. The samples were lyophilized, irradiated together
with Au wire and Zr foil, which serve as flux ratio monitor and a parameter at TNRC. Concentrations of 24 elements in gallstone
and 23 elements in bile were determined. The levels of the trace elements in the various samples investigated are measured
and discussed. The reliability of the analysis was checked with several biological standard reference materials.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements
taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis
(NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed
on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable
variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of
adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many
countries were lower than the dietary requirements.
Authors:A. Pradeep, G. Nagaraju, P. Sarita, A. Rao, B. Reddy, G. Rao, and S. Reddy
A number of essential trace elements play a major role in various metabolic pathways and in many diseases like autoimmune,
neurological and psychiatric. This study is undertaken with an aim to evaluate the levels of different trace elements in the
scalp hair samples of patients suffering from alcohol induced psychosis by particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE).
It is observed that Fe (p < 0.0005), Cu (p < 0.001) are significantly higher in the hair samples of alcohol induced psychosis patients compared to those in normals
while concentrations of Mn (p < 0.005) and Zn (p < 0.0001) are lower. The concentrations of Co and Ni in the hair samples are found to be in consonance with the concentrations
in the normals.
In this paper we generalise the mathematical model which describes the stability conditions of the human body considered as a big cybernetic system that lives in the normal condition by feed-back. Starting by a linear approximation, we generalise the stability's conditions in the polynomial case of dependencies between trace elements determined in organs of the human body. We tested this model on traces of: Fe, Zn and Co. These elements were determined in breast tissues samples which have different diseases.