In this article new result of international researches focused on the hydraulic behavior of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SF-CW-s) for wastewater treatment are shown. The results presented below are focused on the tracer experiments to simulate transport processes, the effect of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and organic substances loads, and the effect of macrophytes, meteorological conditions. The Hungarian experiences of constructed wetlands are compared to that of international ones and the main differences are discussed. The main considerations of comparison are: specific load of organic substances, specific load of TSS, specific hydraulic load, the type of soil, the pre-treatment systems, etc. The conclusion of this comparison is the main directions of development of the subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in Hungary.
Authors:Katarzyna Fonteyn, Anouar Belahcen, and Antero Arkkio
The measurements done on magnetic bearings usually give higher losses than have been expected through the simulations. One of the reasons for the difference might be that the stresses introduced by mechanical or thermal treatments are not taken into account when a model is developed. In this paper, a core loss model of the magnetic bearings, taking the stresses in the laminations of the rotor into account is proposed. The model is used in the finite element analysis of radial magnetic bearings.
The main aim of the current paper is to investigate the cyclic behavior of bracing type pure aluminum shear panels (BTPASPs) obtained through a heat treatment of the base material and stiffened by means of welded ribs. The use of the heat-treated aluminum alloy AW1050 A H24 allows to achieve a good hysteretic behavior, while the choice of equipping the plates with ribs is due to the will of shifting buckling phenomena to the plastic field. In order to examine the performances of such a device, experimental tests on two diagonally loaded bracing type pure aluminum shear panels are presented.
Authors:Stefan Varga, Silvia Patachia, and Rodica Ion
Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a biocompatible and non-toxic polymer able to form a hydrogel network suitable for drug encapsulation and delivery. A directional controlled release device for porphyrins used in cancer therapy has been devised and implemented based on the swelling and collapse capability of the PVA-based hydrogel. An improved version of this device, having a multi-laminar design with a retarder membrane, is accomplished. The devices can function as model systems for the advanced engineering of transdermal drug-delivery devices for various therapeutic applications (photodynamic therapy, viral inactivation and treatment of psoriasis).
According to the European Union Water Framework Directive, the Hungarian River Basin Management Plan considers as the base of its objectives - which are to assure sustainable water use - to determine the amount of sustainably exploitable water. This study outlines the core properties of current water supply system in Hungary; the distribution of extracted water between different types of sources, where and what kind of water-treatment procedures are needed etc. and also examines the changes in these indicators. This kind of data may contribute to the development of both ecologically and economically sustainable water supply systems.
Authors:Robert Koch, Katalin Bene, and Geza Hajnal
Increased population growth and changing environmental conditions have focused attention on sustainability of karst spring flow. In Hungary, the quality of karst springs is acceptable for drinking water supply; the only treatment it needs is the disinfection. Aggtelek is one of the best-studied karst regions; a hydrologic monitoring network was built and operated at the Jósvafő Research Station for about 50 years. The long-term data for the 15 major karst springs, rainfall, and temperature was available for analyses. This paper presents a methodology to estimate karst spring recharge, which can then be adapted to predict karst spring flow in lessstudied areas.
Authors:Sari Piippo, Paula Saavalainen, Juhani Kaakinen, and Eva Pongrácz
Municipal solid waste management is a basic service that, in Finland, consists of collection, transportation and treatment systems provided by municipalities, waste management companies and producer responsibility organizations. The amount of municipal solid waste in Finland has risen quite steadily for many decades. In 2012, the recovery rate of municipal solid waste as material or energy was 67%. The Finnish Waste Act has been updated in 2012, with the key goal to further reduce waste amounts and progress recycling. The paper describes the best practices in strategic waste management planning and describes the organization of municipal solid waste in city of Oulu, Finland.
Ensuring the provision of suitable living units remains one of the most challenging issues among the architects. The economic conditions in Kosovo represent one of the factors that influenced the functional and spatial change in multi-apartment buildings. Taking into account the passing of time, economic conditions, the requirements and needs of the communities change, those affects change in the functional and spatial aspect. The construction of multi-apartment and individual buildings, as well as other buildings with other uses in the center of the cities represents a delicate issue. On the other hand, the need for reconstruction and re-destination of usage of the existing residential buildings is becoming an important topic for the society in Kosovo. The issue is somewhat sensitive regarding the multi-apartment residential buildings, given that the usable surface is increasingly limited. The next challenge for the architects will be the treatment of the existing areas, their adaption in harmony with the requirements of the new generations, social changes that Kosovo is dealing with. The entire endeavor to reach a more comfortable solution is realized through treatment of the residential spaces not only in function wise, as well as in the exterior, through the transparence in architecture. The aim of the paper is to show transformation of the living spaces through real example, in Prishtina.