The Psalter (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 39 Aug. 4º) of Beatrice of Aragon, the wife of King Matthias Corvinus, often features in research literature on account of its title-page and ornate binding. The title-page (fol. 13r) was long attributed to Francesco del Cherico, but for some time now it has been ascribed to Francesco Rosselli and his collaborator, the Maestro dell'Iliade Medicea, while the binding is attributed – after Anthony Hobson – to Felice Feliciano. There are written documents to prove that both Francesco Rosselli and Felice Feliciano visited Hungary, both in the late 1470s, in1480 the latest. That Rosselli painted the Psalter title-page in Buda cannot be proven, although the arguments proposed by Edina Zsupán – the Hungarian saints in the calendar, the crudeness of the parchment – may suggest it. However, not only the title-page but six other pages of the Psalm-book are illumined (foll. 43r, 59v, 76v, 94r, 115v, 135v, 155v). These pages so far ignored by research literature are not Francesco Rosselli's works, being in completely different style. Their illuminator was presumably one of the North Italian masters who illumined for Hungarian clients several manuscripts in Buda around1480 and later, among whom only one is known by name(Franciscus Kastello Ithallico de Mediolano). He used cold, bright colours, the faces of the figures are markedly modelled, the drapery has a metallic hardness. One of the ruling motifs of the marginal decoration is the cornucopia. This hand cannot be identified at present in any manuscript whose provenience was Buda; its closest relative is a single Italian illumination in the Corvinus Gradual(National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 424, fol. 7r). The master of the ornate binding of the Psalter – as Marianne Rozsondai has established – was the binder of the 14th century Bible kept in Erlangen (Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 6) which also features of portrait of King Matthias. Important roles are played on both bindings by the leather filigree arabesques and the embossed all'antica motifs. The hand of the master making the gilded Corvina bindings can also be discerned on the Bible binding. So it seems that these two luxurious manuscripts completed around 1480 had an important – maybe even model-giving – role in the history of the evolving royal library, the Bibliotheca Corvina.
In 1539, a peculiar Latin-Hungarian (more precisely: Hungarian-Latin) grammar was published by Johannes Sylvester, dedicating the grammar (probably symbolically) to his son. Unfortunately enough, his grammar got lost in the war-stricken times of the first half of the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, however, it was found again and then republished. Being lost, the grammar in question could not influence the grammarians of Sylvester’s age.The “discovery” of the mother tongues in Europe, the birth of a new spirituality (Reformation) and the compelling drive to translate the Bible into vernaculars were the unmistakable signs of the first linguistic revolution.The grammar actually is a contrastive analysis of Latin, Greek and a lesser degree German, Hebrew and Hungarian. What is more interesting, its deals with structure and not with single word comparisons. Sylvester was the first in Europe to articulate the basic difference between the chief European languages (Latin, [Ancient] Greek, German and the non-European Hebrew) and Hungarian revealing that Hungarian is of postpositional character; so he was the first in Europe to discover agglutination as the basic feature of Hungarian (though he was not familiar with this term). Among other things, he casually mentions the relationship of Hebrew (the “lingua sancta”) to Hungarian, as was the linguistic trend of his age.
This article is an attempt to compare the dramas by Slovakian and Hungarian dramatists. As an introduction a very brief issue throws light upon the Slovakian and Hungarian literary relations, which were the course of coexistence of two nations in the united state field. The outstanding Slovakian poet of the last quarter of the 19th century Pavol Ország-Hviezdoslav admired Hungarian culture and literature. In 1905 he translated into Slovakian “The Tragedy of Man” by Imre Madách and a few years later he wrote his own philosophical drama “Herodes and Herodias”, what made possible to follow some parallels between these works. At first sight there isn't much in common, however what makes them similar are some philosophical subjects such as the Bible motives, interest in history and human moral problems. At the same time the article deals with genre of these works (dramatical poem, philosophical drama, symbolical poem). The analysis of two dramas makes reasonable to confirm that between them there are typological and contact relations which are the part of the general Slovakian and Hungarian cultural context.
On the basis of Croato-Glagolitic documents found in Hungary and parts of Ivan Bercic's fragments, the paper intends to describe the effect Latin texts had on Old Church Slavonic texts in Croatian edition translated from Latin. This impact can be characterized as 1) external (on the outward appearance of the codex sheet, especially on the shape of letters) or 2) linguistic (on the vocabulary, grammar, and style). In terms of the way this influence is exerted, one can distinguish between 1) direct (individual) influence (the impact of a certain passage on the corresponding part of the translated text) or 2) indirect (cumulative) influence (a joint effect of identical phenomena-occurring in various Latin texts-on several Croato-Glagolitic passages, independently of the given passage). Direct influence is exemplified by identical initials, most cases of poetic usage of synonyms, in grammar by participium instans, and negative direct influence is apparent when a passage of the Bible is translated incorrectly. Cumulative influence is present in most initials taken from Latin, in poetic usage of synonyms beyond the given Latin text, and in the recurring use of Latin liturgical terms and their calques in the rubrics. The impact of the Latin original has a mainly positive and enriching character. At the same time, harmful effects are quite rare.
The present paper outlines a historical change in Hungarian syntax by focusing on participial constructions and their clausal equivalents in ten different Hungarian translations of the Bible. The first part investigates the relative frequency of the relevant structures and, relying upon statistical data, it characterises the process of a shift from analytic to synthetic constructions. Then we analyse secondary semantic differences among the various structures (participial constructions, subordinate clauses and coordinate clauses) and propose that in the case of subordination the semantic relationship between the matrix sentence and the dependent clause is expressed in an explicit manner. However, if the meaning of the related participial construction is complex (combining features of temporal, causal, and instrumental relationships), a subordinate clause can express only one of these, and the other features are not represented in it. Coordination, on the other hand, especially asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination and that involving the conjunctions és, s ‘and’, is more capable of embracing several shades of meaning. Thus, in terms of their semantic properties, coordinate clauses are more similar to participial constructions than subordinate clauses are. Finally, the paper raises some general ideas with respect to the theoretical background of this kind of shift in sentence construction. The framework of the study is what is called “traditional grammar”, but it also introduces some terms of functional grammar.
Baking bells (or baking lids) were actually very simple ovens that were suitable for baking bread, meat and fish. This method of food preparation was practiced since prehistory in the Mediterranean world and we can find descriptions of baking bells in the Bible and in the works of the writers of antiquity. This individual mode of baking bread became especially widespread during late antiquity. In some regions, the use of baking bells survived either owing to a general stagnation (as in the Balkans or the Alpine lands), or to unusual living conditions (as in the Roman military camps of the Augustan period and in the medieval Ottoman-period border forts in Hungary). Their increasingly frequent use in late antiquity was a reflection of economic decline and the disappearance of urban bakeries. At the same time, the adoption of baking bells by the Barbarian peoples (such as the Avars and the ancient Hungarians) settling on the fringes of the Mediterranean world can be seen as a cultural advance and the adoption of local traditions. Baking bells were still used in the Carpathian Basin as late as the 19th century and they can be found in some areas of the Balkans even today.
Authors:Людмила В. Братухина and Александр Ю. Братухин
The paper is devoted to analyzing examples of the use of constructions “O + locative”, which have the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument”. Our interest in these examples is due, firstly, to the fact that this meaning of the preposition O is completely absent in modern Russian. Secondly, in some cases, this construction found in Old Slavonic texts is replaced in Church Slavonic by the construction “ВЪ + locative”, which is a calque from the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative” (often having the meaning of “a tool”) but this substitution is inconsistent. Thirdly, the constructions “O + locative” and “BЪ + locative” appear in the Old Slavonic manuscripts in parallel. The main aim of the study is to identify the shades of meaning that the creators of Old Slavonic texts distinguished in the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative”, choosing “O + locative” as a variant of translation; and to determine whether the indicated meaning of the preposition O was original in the Slavic languages or this preposition was acquired in the process of translating Biblical texts.
The research is based on the Sinai Psalter, the Zographic and Ostromir Gospels, the Ostroh and Elizabethan Bibles as well as the examples (contained in the dictionaries of the Old Slavic, Old Russian, and Church Slavonic languages) from the Mariinsky Four Gospels, Assemaniev’s Gospel, Savin’s book, Euchology of Sinai, and Supralsky manuscript.
The construction “έν + dative” is translated not only by “O + locative”. The former is also regularly translated by constructions of the instrumental case without a preposition (in Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic texts). The possibility of forming of the meaning of the action source under the influence of the construction “OTЪ + genitive” is also considered. In general, the dynamics of evolution of the meaning of “O + locative” is traced in the paper. It is concluded that the analyzed “O + locative” construction acquired the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument” at the time of the creation of Old Slavonic Bible translations. This is due to the process of reflection on the text, which became possible with the appearance of the written Slavonic language and the comparison of this construction with a simple instrumental case, combinations of “OTЪ + genitive” and “BЪ + locative”, which in some cases acted as synonymous and could be chosen by translators either spontaneously or with the aim to express nuances of meaning. This is demonstrated with the elimination of ancient Greek tracing, as well as the reverse replacement of “O + locative” by “BЪ + locative”. The instrumental case without a preposition was similar to “O + locative” in the expression of the causal meaning as well as in indicating the source of the action; the con- struction of “OTЪ + genitive”, in addition to the similarity of meaning, in terms of spelling and phonetics also resembled “O + locative”. The construction “O + locative” turned out to be more stable in the cases of indicating an animate source or basis of activity.
The paper looks – mainly from the point of view of iconography – at the intricate composition of the icon of The Mother of God “The Life-giving Fountain” made around 1700 and once used in the former Serbian orthodox church of Győr. Despite the Greek title of the icon calling the Mother of God the Life-giving Fountain, it only partly fits into the tradition of this Byzantine icon type that evolved in the Palaeologan age. The relic is astonishingly innovative not only in the Hungarian stock of icons but also in the whole of post-Byzantine icon painting first of all on account of its secondary motifs. The analysis of analogies and pictorial sources of the individual compositional elements – various plant motifs, the fountain, the coronation of the Virgin, motifs alluding to the celestial sphere – has revealed that the Győr icon is an elaborate complex of western influences arriving into post-Byzantine art along diverse routes. The inscriptions also tie the icon to the Byzantine Akathist hymn to the Blessed Virgin which includes the same symbols of Mary rooted in the Bible as were widespread in the West as well in the early baroque cult of the Virgin. The Győr icon has connections with post-Byzantine iconographic types displaying the influence of western art, such as the tree of Jesse, the Unfading rose, which together with the Life-giving Fountain icon were popular in the 16–17th century icon painting in the territory between Venice, Crete and Athos. The special art historical place of the studied icon is, however, defined by its closest iconographic analogy, the Sammelikone surviving in the imperial court of Vienna, in which the central image of the Life-giving Fountain is added the votive portraits of Emperor Leopold I and his wife. The Győr icon of the Life-giving Fountain is most probably related to some orthodox ethnic group (Serbs, Greeks, Macedonians) who fled the Ottomans to the area of the Habsburg Empire.