counting the publications, an attempt was also made to gauge the scientific influence using the standard techniques of citationanalysis. Since a reliable estimate of citation impact requires a certain time (at least a few years) after publication, papers
Up to the 1960s the prevalent view of science was that it was a step-by-step undertaking in slow, piecemeal progression towards
truth. Thomas Kuhn argued against this view and claimed that science always follows this pattern: after a phase of “normal”
science, a scientific “revolution” occurs. Taking as a case study the transition from the static view of the universe to the
Big Bang theory in cosmology, we appraised Kuhn’s theoretical approach by conducting a historical reconstruction and a citation
analysis. As the results show, the transition in cosmology can be linked to many different persons, publications, and points
in time. The findings indicate that there was not one (short term) scientific revolution in cosmology but instead a paradigm
shift that progressed as a slow, piecemeal process.
Authors:Jean A. Pratt, Karina Hauser, and Cassidy R. Sugimoto
impact of scholarly contributions between IS and other COB disciplines. We apply and extend field co-citationanalysis (Sugimoto et al. 2008 ) using COB fields. Discipline-defining journal sets were used as proxies of the COB disciplines. We describe the
The study seeks to identify the influence of local and regional publications in the production of public health research papers
in the Latin American region. A citation analysis of the papers published in the following three leading journals in the field
of public health was conducted: Revista Médica de Chile (Chile) (RMCh); Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (Venezuela) (ALAN); and Salud Pública de México (México) (SPM). Papers were analyzed for the period 2003–2007. SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and the printed
version of the journals were used in the analysis. Overall, 1,273 papers from 122 journal issues were analyzed. References
accounted for a total of 38,459. Over 90% of the production was published through the collaboration of two or more authors.
Author affiliation corresponded in most cases to the country of origin of the journal. References to Portuguese papers accounted
for nearly 5% in ALAN and less than 1% each in SPM and RMCh. Citations among the three journals were not significant. Only
ALAN cited RMCh and SPM over 3% each, of total citations. SPM and RMCh cited each other less than 1% of total citations. With
the exception of ALAN, most public health papers published in RMCh and SPM derived from the national collaboration of researchers
in the field. A small amount of public health knowledge communication was being transferred from Brazil to the region through
RMCh and SPM. A vertical and individual (per journal/country) model of knowledge communication in public health was identified.
The present paper focuses on some important requirements for understanding patent searchreports in view of their use for statistical analysis. It is pointed out and illustrated that thecomprehensiveness and the quality of a given search report may vary significantly as a function ofthe patent office drawing up the report. These differences imply consequences with respect to thesafe use and interpretation of the data. The authors stress that a sound analysis based on patentcitation data can only be performed in a meaningful way if the analyst has a minimum knowledgeof the underlying search reports.
This paper discusses the publications of Third World Countries (TWC) in theScience Citation Index by disciplines. TWC documents which were nationally cross-linked at least 20 times were identified and their citing documents
categorised into seven disciplines. The top 12 TWC are discussed vis--vis their population, Gross National Product, and the
extent of participation usingobserved rates of contribution in each discipline andexpected rates based on numbers of citations received. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile, appeared most frequently in the top five ranks
in each of the seven disciplines; however, none of these countries had neither the largest population nor the highest GNP
per capita. Overall observed rates exceeded expected rates in all but two disciplines: Biomedicine and Agriculture. Physics
& Engineering had the highest overall observed rate with the top five TWC exceeding the overall and their individual expected
rates. Brazil and Venezuela led by exceeding their expected rates in four of the seven disciplines.