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In the present study, canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in 20 dogs having nervous signs arousing the clinical suspicion of canine distemper (CD). A total of 13 animals (65%) were stray dogs and had no accurate record about the vaccination history. Clinical examinations revealed that the majority (85%) of the animals showed systemic form characterised by predominantly nervous symptoms accompanied by mild respiratory system signs whilst the remaining cases (15%) recorded mainly respiratory distress. CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) only in 45% of the suspected cases. Phylogenetic analysis of partial nucleotide sequence of the P gene coding region revealed that the virus is closely related to European strains. Immune responses in 13 cases (65%), which were detected by dot-ELISA, indicated inefficient levels for neutralising functions against CDV. It was postulated that this response could have been mediated by either previous vaccination or mild infection with field strains.

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The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) in healthy dogs. In the first part of the study 20 dogs of various breeds were examined. The diameter of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was compared to the linear (left to right) dimension of the left atrium (LAr-l) as published earlier. There was a linear relationship between LAr-l and the body weight (LAr-l = 0.5061 BW (kg) + 22.206; R2 = 0.81), but the proportion of LAr-l/LAama was independent of the body weight (LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833; R2 = 0.01). In the second part of the study the left atrial diameter just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was measured in 121 dogs of various breeds. There was a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.697; p < 0.001) between body weight and LAama (LAama = 0.54 BW (kg) + 18.502 ± 4.76), but there were no significant correlations between the age of animals and LAama (p = 0.45) as well as between the gender of animals and LAama (p = 0.78). Two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) determination of LAama as described in the present study can be recommended for use in those dogs where measurement of LAr-l encounters technical difficulties. In these cases LAr-l can be calculated from LAama using the formula LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833, worked out in the first experiment.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
László Z. Reinitz
,
Gábor Bajzik
,
Rita Garamvölgyi
,
Bianka Benedek
,
Örs Petneházy
,
András Lassó
,
Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth
,
Borbála Lőrincz
, and
Péter Sótonyi

Despite numerous studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its importance during hydrocephalus or myelography, no reliable values exist about its overall volume in dogs. In this study, our aim was to measure the intracranial (IC) volume of CSF in dogs and assess its possible relationship with body size and the symmetry of the lateral ventricles. We ran a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence on the central nervous system of 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs between 3–5 years of age and 7.5–35.0 kg body weight. A validated semiautomatic segmentation protocol was implemented to segment the CSF and measure its volume. Values for the volume of the ventricular compartment were between 0.97 and 2.94 ml, with 62.1 ± 11.7% in the lateral ventricles, 17.6 ± 4.9% in the third ventricle, 4.9 ± 1.6% in the aqueductus mesencephali and 15.5 ± 6.6% in the fourth ventricle. In 11 cases a significant asymmetry was found between the lateral ventricles. The results suggest that it may be normal for a dog to have one of the lateral ventricles 1.5 times larger than the other. The correlation between body weight and CSF volume was linear, indicating that the current dosage protocols for myelography, based on a hypothetical proportional relationship with body weight, may have to be revised.

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Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens is common in dogs and it is an emerging helminthozoonosis in Europe, Asia, Africa and also in Hungary. Macrocyclic lactones are used for preventing the infection; however, their activity against the microfilariae and mature stages of this species is questionable. Selamectin is widely used for the prophylaxis of heartworm ( D. immitis ) infection. The objective of the present study was to test the microfilaricidal efficacy of the topical formulation of selamectin in dogs naturally infected with D. repens . A total of 78 Beagle dogs were examined for the presence of circulating microfilariae by Knott’s test. Twenty-three of the microfilaraemic dogs were divided into four groups and included in the trial. The dogs received monthly or biweekly selamectin treatment and were subjected to monthly blood testing for a period of 252 or 336 days. At the end of the study, 65% of the dogs were not microfilaraemic and the rest had low number of microfilariae in their blood. These results indicate that chronic spot-on selamectin treatment may be a useful tool also in the control of canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis.

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A comparative study of immunogenicity and efficacy of the oral rabies virus vaccine SAD P5/88 in raccoon dogs and foxes was conducted. The raccoon dogs received 10 (n = 6), 106.3 (n = 6) or 105.7 FFU SAD P5/88 (n = 5) by direct oral application, and subsequently all animals seroconverted. The foxes received 107.2 (n = 4), 106.2 (n = 4), 105.2 (n = 4) and 104.2 FFU SAD P5/88 (n = 5) by the same route. On days 106 and 196 post vaccination 10 raccoon dogs and 16 foxes were challenged with a relevant street virus, respectively. All 10 raccoon dogs vaccinated with 106.3 (n = 5) or 105.7 FFU SAD P5/88 (n = 5) survived the challenge, whereas all control animals (n = 5) died of rabies. Two foxes vaccinated with 104.2 FFU and one fox vaccinated with 105.2 FFU died of rabies on day 7, 17 and 12 post infection, respectively. Also all control foxes succumbed to rabies. Our findings demonstrate that SAD P5/88 is not only an effective vaccine for oral vaccination of foxes but also for that of raccoon dogs.

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The Biofragmentable Anastomosis Ring (BAR) is a mechanical device composed of absorbable material and creates an inverting, atraumatic compressive anastomosis with no foreign material at the anastomotic site after healing. The aim of the present experimental study was to assess the safety of oesophagoscopy in early days after oesophageal anastomoses performed with the BAR and to follow-up the healing of BAR anastomoses by in vivo endoscopy and autopsy examination. Thirty mongrel dogs divided into subgroups according to the timepoints of endoscopy and autopsy (4th, 7th, 14th, 28th day) were used. There was no significant difference in the healing of anastomoses performed under or above the tracheal bifurcation. Pleural adhesions helped to cover and seal small subclinical leaks. The mortality was 13.3% (4 dogs) and the overall leakage rate 14.3%. We looked for bleeding, haematoma, erosion, ulceration and granulation tissue in the anastomosis. Due to the high mechanical strength of these anastomoses, oesophagoscopy was a safe, easy and feasible method for follow-up BAR intrathoracic anastomoses, with no significant difference between the number of lesions found with endoscopy as compared to the autopsy data. The overall sensitivity of oesophagoscopy to discover mucosal lesions was 73.1%. Endoscopy had no complications, therefore it is a useful method of follow-up and may help predict the normal or compromised healing of oesophageal anastomoses.

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Histological and electron microscopic examinations of the kidneys of 8 dogs suffering from fatal, naturally acquired Babesia canis infection and nephropathy are presented. Seven animals were treated with imidocarb dipropionate on average 4.5 days prior to death. Severe anaemia was present only in 2 cases. Degenerative histological changes observed mostly in the proximal convoluted tubules included vacuolar-hydropic degeneration, necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from the basement membrane. Necrotic debris occasionally formed acidophilic casts within the tubules. In some cases, necrosis of the whole tubule was observed. Haemoglobin casts in the tubules and haemoglobin droplets in RTE cells seldom appeared. No significant histological changes were seen in the glomeruli. Ultrastructural lesions in RTE cells included nuclear membrane hyperchromatosis, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, swelling or collapse of mitochondria with fragmentation of cristae and vacuolar-hydropic degeneration in the endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli. Nuclear oedema was also observed. Many RTE cells exhibiting necrosis collapsed. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelium. The severe acute tubular necrosis described in this study is probably the result of hypoxic renal injury. Systemic hypotension leading to vasoconstriction in the kidneys might be the most important cause of renal hypoxia in B. canis infections, but anaemia may also contribute to inadequate oxygenation. Imidocarb should be applied with caution in patients with possible renal involvement until further data become available on its potential nephrotoxicity in dogs.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Adriana Bravo-Monsalvo
,
Juan Vázquez-Chagoyán
,
Lilia Gutiérrez
, and
Héctor Sumano

The aim of this trial was to assess the clinical efficacy of neural therapy (NT) when treating canine atopic dermatitis. Eighteen dogs (no control group), with at least a 12-month history of having nonseasonal atopic dermatitis, were included. No medication with either glucocorticoids or cyclosporin was allowed during the trial. One set of NT was given by injecting an intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg of a 0.7% procaine solution, followed by 10 to 25 intradermal injections of the same solution in a volume of 0.1–0.3 mL per site. Dogs were given 6–13 sets of NT during the therapy. The dermatological condition of each patient was evaluated before and after the treatment using two scales: the pruritus visual analogue scale (PVAS) and the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). The reduction of pruritus was statistically significant using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (P < 0.001). No adverse side effects were observed. NT seems to be an effective alternative to control signs related to canine atopic dermatitis.

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The dental pulp was capped indirectly or directly, or partial vital pulpectomy was performed on the 12 functionally most important teeth of 24 beagle dogs. For pulp capping, calcium hydroxide was used, followed by zinc phosphate as a lining, and the preparation was restored with amalgam or composite material. Histological sections were prepared and examined for degree and type of pulp inflammation (hyperaemia, pulpitis, necrosis or gangrene). Degenerative changes of dental pulp (vacuolation, calcification, amyloid or hyaline changes) were also determined. For indirect pulp capping the width of predentine in crown and root dental pulp was measured, and for direct pulp capping and partial pulpectomy (vital pulpotomy) the width and quality of the dentinal bridge were graded. The radical method of partial vital pulpectomy of the coronal part of the dental pulp in dogs produced better quality and continuity of the dentinal bridge than the less radical method of direct pulp capping. This was particularly obvious in small single root teeth such as incisors.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Andrzej Rychlik
,
Renata Nieradka
,
Małgorzata Kander
,
Marcin Nowicki
,
Michał Wdowiak
, and
Anna Kołodziejska-Sawerska

The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of immunomodulators in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs diagnosed with IBD took part in the study. The animals received a food containing extruded immunomodulators: β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan, β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) and levamisole for 42 days. Whole blood samples were analysed before and after therapy assessing changes in phagocyte activity (respiratory burst activity, RBA and potential killing activity, PKA), evaluation of proliferation response of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and serum gamma globulin levels, lysozyme activity, ceruloplasmin levels and interleukin activity (IL-6 and IL-10). In this experiment, β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan delivered the highest level of treatment efficacy by producing the quickest therapeutic effect, lowering Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) values to below 3, improving histopathological parameters, decreasing IL-6 levels, increasing IL-10 concentrations, and producing remission periods longer than six months. HMB and levamisole were also effective in lowering CIBDAI scores, but the abatement of clinical symptoms was slower and less pronounced in comparison with β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan. The results indicate that β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan can be useful in the treatment of canine IBD.

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