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Abstract  

The heats of hydration reactions for MgCl2⋅4H2O and MgCl2⋅2H2O include two parts, reaction enthalpy and adsorption heat of aqueous vapor on the surfaces of magnesium chloride hydrates. The hydration heat for the reactions MgCl2⋅4H2O+2H2O→MgCl2⋅6H2O and MgCl2⋅2H2O+2H2O→MgCl2⋅4H2O, measured by DSC-111, is –30.36 and –133.94 kJ mol–1,respectively. The adsorption heat of these hydration processes, measured by head-on chromatography method, is –13.06 and –16.11 kJ mol–1, respectively. The molar enthalpy change for the above two reactions is –16.64 and –118.09 kJ mol–1, respectively. The comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical values for these hydration processes indicates that the results obtained in this study are quite reliable.

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The effects of the mycotoxin patulin on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Photoluminescence methods. Results show that in the presence of patulin, the free enthalpy change during the transition of BSA was decreased by an average of ∼ 46 kJ/mol, the free energy change was decreased by ∼ 4 kJ/mol, and the activation energy fell from ∼ 1546 to ∼ 840 kJ/mol. These results indicate that the bioactivity of patulin is based on the kinetic rather than on the thermodynamic properties of the transition. This is the first evidence of the direct interaction of patulin with the free thiol-containing BSA, a process which could contribute to the adverse cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by patulin.

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Abstract  

Liquid–liquid extraction of U (VI) from concentrated phosphoric acid by using (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphonic acid, mono (2-ethyl hexyl) ester (PC88A) and di-butyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) has been investigated. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction process (PC88A concentration, DBBP concentration, shaking time, aqueous/organic phase ratio, phosphoric acid concentration and effect of diluents) have been investigated. The obtained data of temperature on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is −17.15 kJ mol−1. Uranium was extracted from the strip liquor by using di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and tri-octyl phosphine oxide mixture and finally converted to a high purity UO3 product using precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment at 365 °C.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: M. Perraki, T. Perraki, K. Kolovos, S. Tsivilis, and G. Kakali

Abstract  

The sintering and hydration processes of a modified cement raw mix were examined using thermal analysis techniques. One reference and four modified mixtures, prepared by mixing the reference sample with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % w/w of a wolframite-stibnite mineral were studied. The clinkering reactions were recorded and the total enthalpy change during the sintering was determined by means of a differential scanning calorimetry. The combined water and the Ca(OH)2 content in samples hydrated for 1 to 28 days were determined, using thermogravimetry. As it is concluded, the effect of the added mineral on the sintering and hydration reactions can be fully recorded and evaluated using thermal analysis.

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Abstract

Analysis of thermal decomposition processes of the ausferrite obtained during simulation of austempering heat treatment was performed on austempered ductile iron (ADI). The analysis method consisting in investigation of inverse phase transformations was applied. The material with specified phase composition and well-defined thermophysical properties, both resulting from the conducted heat treatment cycle, was heated under controlled conditions and the thermal effects—enthalpy change and volume change were recorded by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential dilatometry. The process of ausferrite decomposition in the range of 100–800 °C was discussed; the identification scheme and temperature sequence of phase transformations accompanying the ausferrite decomposition were established. The elaborated decomposition scheme allows selection of the ADI heat treatment and its optimization by means of the non-isothermal thermal analysis methods.

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Abstract  

The development of equipment for thermal analysis has opened up new areas for applications in science, industrial practice and environment studies. On the basis of the literature and information from equipment producers, the directions for the use of thermal analysis in research and practice are classified. Special attention is paid to the possibilities of controlling environmental pollution, and the stability and other properties of intermediate and final industrial products. It is stressed that DSC and DTA systems can be successfully applied to determine enthalpy changes in raw materials and products as control tests for their application. The advantages of coupled thermal systems for complex studies and the control of raw materials, products and wastes are described.

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Thermal properties of three ferroelectric liquid crystals, namely: 3-octyloxy-6-[2-fluor-4-(fluoroctyloxy)phenyl]-pyridine (FFP), 3-(3-fluor-nonyl)-6[4-heptyloxyphenyl]-pyridine (FNHPh-P), 4-[(S,S)-2,3-epoxyhexyloxy]phenyl 4-(decyloxy)benzoate (EHPhDB) were studied using heat flux differential scanning calorimetry method. All the transitions expected in this compounds, except the SmC*-SmA* and SmC*-S3 transitions, were detected in the DSC curves. The temperatures of the phase transitions and the enthalpy changes associated with them were determined. The transition from the liquid crystalline to the crystalline state showed significant hysteresis for all three compounds studied. The following transitions: SmA*-Is, SmG*-SmC* for FNHPh-P, N*-Is for EHPhDB, N*-Is and SmC*-N* for FFP also showed a small hysteresis basing on which first-order character of all the above transitions was implied. All three substances studied in this work are characterized by a complex polymorphism in the solid state.

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Abstract  

The interaction of a flavonoid molecule (puerarin) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), optical spectroscopic technique, and molecular modeling method under physiological conditions. The binding parameters for the reaction were calculated according to ITC experiments at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, negative enthalpy changes (ΔH), and positive entropy (ΔS) indicated that the binding processes were entropically driven. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of puerarin in aqueous solution were estimated by the evidences from FT-IR and CD spectroscopy with reductions of α-helices. On the basis of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between excited tryptophan in BSA and BSA bound puerarin, the critical transfer distance and mean distance between tryptophan in BSA and puerarin were estimated.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Maksim Ionov, Barbara Klajnert, Konstantinos Gardikis, Sophia Hatziantoniou, Bartlomiej Palecz, Bakhtiyar Salakhutdinov, Josep Cladera, Maria Zamaraeva, Costas Demetzos, and Maria Bryszewska

Abstract  

To investigate the molecular interaction of amyloid beta peptides Aβ1–28 or Aβ25–40 with model lipid membranes differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DPH and TMA DPH fluorescence anisotropy approaches were used. The main transition temperature (T m) and enthalpy change (ΔH) of model lipid membranes composed of DMPC/DPPG on addition of Aβ25–40 or Aβ25–40 at 10:1 (w/w) phospholipid/peptide ratio either non-aggregated or previously aggregated were examined. The effect of Aβ1–28 and Aβ25–40 on the membrane fluidity of liposomes made of DMPC/DPPG (98:2 w/w) was determined by fluorescence anisotropy of incorporated DPH and TMA DPH. The results of this study provide information that Aβ1–28 preferentially interacts with the hydrophilic part of the model membranes, while Aβ25–40 rather locates itself in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer where it reduces the order of the phospholipids packing.

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Abstract  

A solid complex Eu(C5H8NS2)3(C12H8N2) has been obtained from reaction of hydrous europium chloride with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen⋅H2O) in absolute ethanol. IR spectrum of the complex indicated that Eu3+ in the complex coordinated with sulfur atoms from the APDC and nitrogen atoms from the o-phen. TG-DTG investigation provided the evidence that the title complex was decomposed into EuS. The enthalpy change of the reaction of formation of the complex in ethanol, Δr H m θ(l), as –22.2140.081 kJ mol–1, and the molar heat capacity of the complex, c m, as 61.6760.651 J mol–1 K–1, at 298.15 K were determined by an RD-496 III type microcalorimeter. The enthalpy change of the reaction of formation of the complex in solid, Δr H m θ(s), was calculated as 54.5270.314 kJ mol–1 through a thermochemistry cycle. Based on the thermodynamics and kinetics on the reaction of formation of the complex in ethanol at different temperatures, fundamental parameters, including the activation enthalpy (ΔH θ), the activation entropy (ΔS θ), the activation free energy (ΔG θ), the apparent reaction rate constant (k), the apparent activation energy (E), the pre-exponential constant (A) and the reaction order (n), were obtained. The constant-volume combustion energy of the complex, Δc U, was determined as –16937.889.79 kJ mol–1 by an RBC-II type rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. Its standard enthalpy of combustion, Δc H m θ, and standard enthalpy of formation, Δf H m θ, were calculated to be –16953.379.79 and –1708.2310.69 kJ mol–1, respectively.

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