Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in the study of fly ash from large electric power and heating plants. Two basic kinds of fly ash originating either from brown coal or heavy-oil combustion can be characterized both by morphology and trace element composition. INAA technique used consisted of both short (1 min) and long (2 h) activations to ensure the determination of 30–40 elements in each fly ash sample. The average composition and determination limits obtained by INAA for coal fly ash produced in several electric power plants burning two kinds of brown coal have been compared with those obtained for fly ash originating from heating plants burning heavy-oil. Coal fly ash showed much higher concentrations of many elements especially of Sc. La, Th, Cs, Ce, Sm, Rb and Al in comparison with oil fly ash. On the other hand, the latter contained relatively high concentrations of V and Ni. The results of INAA of fly ash samples can be used for the projection of efficient separating devices and for the evaluation and prediction of contamination levels in the vicinity of large emission sources.
presented in Table 1 . The mass percentages of calcium sulfate dihydrate calculated by the content of SO 3 are up to 94.3, 95.8, and 94.1%, respectively. The main impurities are some SiO 2 , which could come from as amorphous phase of flyash and crystal
Forty elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in a wide range of Australian coals and fly ash to update and extend earlier measurements. The natural radioactivity content of selected samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and low level radiochemistry. The results indicated a marked disequilibrium of the232Th decay series in some samples while a general enrichment of210Pb in most fly ash samples disrupted the238U equilibrium.
− ) in the three natural pozzolans must have been closer to the amorphous state characteristic of metakaolin than the vitreous state characteristic of flyash;
when they reacted with the portlandite released
Elemental concentrations and specific activity values of natural radionuclides were measured in lignite, bottom ash and fly
ash samples collected from the Megalopolis power plant A in southern Greece, using nuclear analytical techniques. The results
show that the elements As, Br, Mo, Sb, Se, and U were enriched in the lignite samples, the elements Mo, Se and U in bottom
ash, while fly ash samples were enriched in As, Mo, Sb, Se and U. Specific activity measurements also show that 238U (226Ra) activity values in lignite and both ash samples were high relative to the corresponding data for coal and earth crust
given in the literature. As a high quantity of fly ash is produced during the operation of the lignite power plant A, this
power plant should be considered as a major source of air particulate pollution and radiation to the population living in
the vicinity of lignite burning power plant.
The Figueira coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is among the Brazilian CFPP which presents higher uranium concentration. Gamma-ray
spectrometry was used to determine 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232 Th and 40K contents in pulverized coal, furnace bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized
coal ranged from 813 to 2609 Bq . kg-1 for U series and from 22 to 40 Bq . kg-1 for 232 Th. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 1442 to 14641 Bq . kg-1, for uranium series. The same enrichment factor was observed for 238U, 226Ra and 232 Th. Only 210Pb and stable Pb presented a high enrichment factor for the last stage filter fly ash. The concentration of the uranium series
found in the ashes is close to the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01).22 Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation.
Previously, the use of an enriched stable isotope as an activatable yield tracer in preconcentration steps has been tested by use of commercially available enriched116Cd and156Dy for biological standard reference materials.1,2 In the present work, this method has been further applied to the determination of lanthanoid contents in various kinds of samples: one coal fly-ash, three Japanese standard rocks, and eight standard soils. Samples were decomposed by alkali fusion in the preconcentration step. Thirteen elements were determined for coal fly-ash and soil samples, and 14 elements for rocks. The data obtained for coal fly-ash and standard rocks are compared with the data reported in literature. The data for soil samples have been newly determined in the present work. The ordinary instrumental neutron activation analysis and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were also performed to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the present method.
The adsorption of radioantimony (122Sb and124Sb) on pyrolysis residue, bentonite and fly ash from its solutions in benzene, toluene and xylene was investigated. The radioactivity of the isotopes was measured in the organic solution above the adsorbents as a function of time. After 24 h, the sequence of uptake of Sb(V) in benzene and toluene is: pyrolysis residue>bentonite>fly ash, while in xylene it is bentonite>pyrolysis residue>fly ash. The maximum lg kD value was 3.37 for the toluene-pyrolysis residue system. Desorption of Sb(V) from the loaded material was studied using both tap water and 1M HCl. The latter has more desorption power, evidently, due to hydrolysis and production of insoluble species in the neutral medium.
A procedure is described for the determination of thallium in coal fly ash by fast neutron activation analysis using the reaction203Tl/n, 2n/202Tl. A 31 h reactor irradiatioon under cadmium cover at a fast neutron flux of 3.05×1012 n.cm–2.s–1 is applied. The simple radiochemical separation involves a wet attack in acids followed by an extraction of Tl/III/into diisopropylether from 0.5M HBr. The radiochemical purity is sufficient for immediate -spectrometry. A value of 5.7±0.7 ppm is found in the NBS 1633a coal fly ash.
The distribution and origin of 40K, 226Ra, 228Ra and 137Cs has been investigated in trees, mosses and lichens in the basin of the West Macedonia Lignite Centre. In tree leaves 137Cs is negligible, while the 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are affected by the fly ash particles. Concerning 226Ra and 228Ra values of mosses and lichens, which are systematically larger than those of unpolluted areas, the application of chemometrics proved that they originate mainly from the lignite fly ash.