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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Díaz De León, R. Escoppinichi, R. Zavala-Fonseca, T. Castellanos, M. Röder, and A. Mujeeb-Kazi

To determine limits of tolerance, provide information about genetic diversity, and explore potential as progenitors for a salt-tolerant wheat improvement program, we collected several landraces and genotypes reputed to be salt-tolerant. Salt tolerance was tested by irrigation with a diluted solution of seawater with 12 dS.m −1 electrical conductivity for two years. Phenotypic parameters of percent of emergence, days to flowering to spike emergence, and physiological maturity were not significantly affected. Leaf area was sensitive to salt stress and inhibited about 30%. Plant height was inhibited 30%, while spike length and number of grains per spike were not. Total yield of Shorawaki and Kharchia landraces confirmed their reputation as salt-tolerant. Cultivars Mepuchi, Pericu, Calafia, WH157, and SNH-1 were inhibited at a moderate level of tolerance; cultivars Cochimí, Lu26S, and KRL 1–4 were inhibited, as was the control cultivar Oasis by up to 50%. To amplify microsatellites from genomes A, B, and D, 33 pairs of primers were used. The microsatellite WMS169-6A was highly polymorphic, with 10 different alleles distinguishing the genotype set. Also, the short arm of chromosome 4D microsatellites were amplified and found to be monomorphic, which suggests highly conserved alleles. The other microsatellites had variable polymorphism. In total, 120 alleles were obtained and used to define genetic diversity. The resulting dendrogram showed that landraces Shorawaki and Kharchia are distantly grouped from all other cultivars, as well as the cultivar Chinese Spring. Strikingly, KRL1–4, a derivative of Kharchia, did not show a close relationship to its source. The geographic origin did not influence pair-wise combinations. However, pedigree did influence pair-wise combinations.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: R. Božac, I. Kos, Z. Janječić, Ž. Kuzmanović, M. Konjačić, and J. Nežak

An investigation has been carried out on the effect of different crossbreeds on chemical and sensory profiling of Croatian representative pork products, Istrian hams. Due to the original trimming of hams (without skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue) the total weight loss was significantly higher (41.67–43.69%) in all three genotypes (Swedish Landrace×Dutch Large Whit ×Pietrain (SL×DLW×P), Dutch Large White×Swedish Landrace (DLW×SL) and Dutch Large White×Duroc (DLW×D)) in comparison with the Italian and Spanish hams with skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Hams from DLW×D genotype had a significantly lower (P<0.01) total weight loss (41.67%) and, in comparison with the Spanish and Italian hams, Istrian ham contains much less moisture (45.05–46.35%). The content of total saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol was similar in all crossbreeds (P>0.05). The cholesterol level is low (541.9–555.9 mg kg−1), which makes Istrian dry-cured ham a dietary product. Hams from DLW×D had significantly more visible intramuscular fat (P<0.01) than hams from SL×DLW×P crossbreeds. The colour of muscle tissue, seasoned flavour, taste, saltiness, total mouth consistency (tender, melting, stringy) and tactile consistency were best in genotype DLW×D.

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The characterization of the old Hungarian varieties and landraces is an important part of Hungarian cereal research and breeding. Analysis of these germplasms with the most up-to-date methodologies results a broad scale of diversity of glutenin alleles, which proves their genetic heterogenicity. Exploitation of this attribute is an untapped possibility for developing modern varieties in our breeding programs. The previous research work revealed this diversity by SDS-PAGE analysis and MALDI-TOF technology. The powerful tool, the high throughput lab-on-a chip technique can facilitate the effectiveness of this function and decreases the cost of the analysis. This study demonstrates the application of this technique for analysing the old varieties. The allelic composition and their effects on bread making quality concluded by means of functional analysis.

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The growing interest in emmer cultivation has no doubt been stimulated by the increasing demand for traditional foods with an image of naturalness, especially on the organic market. The new economic situation could stimulate the breeding and production of emmer as the source of an especially valuable foodstuff. It is the task of breeders to produce emmer varieties that can survive even the hardest winter occurring in the targeted cultivation area without serious damage. The best sources to improve the winter hardiness are probably the emmer genetic resources stored in genebanks. Unfortunately no public data are available on the frost tolerance and winter hardiness of the various genebank accessions. In the present research the frost tolerance and winter hardiness of 10 winter emmer genebank accessions were studied under nursery and phytotronic conditions. The results suggest that the majority of the populations studied are frost-sensitive, and only few landraces have an acceptable level of winter hardiness and frost resistance.

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South African sorghum landraces and breeding of varieties suitable for low-input agriculture — Acta Agronomica Hungarica, Vol. 54, No 3 pp. 379–388 Abu Assar A. H. Evaluation of South

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Köszegi, B., Kovács, G. (2003): Gradient chamber studies on the dry matter accumulation of winter emmer [ Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] landraces in the seedling stage. Acta Agron. Hung. , 51 , 413

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R. Peter, T. W. Eschholz, P. Stamp, et al.: 2006. Swiss maize landraces-Early vigour adaptation to cool conditions — Acta Agronomica Hungarica, Vol. 54, No 3 pp. 329–336 Stamp P

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The parents (the landrace Chinese spring (CS) and a synthetic hexaploids (S6x)) and 17 derived single chromosome substitution lines (SL) were grown in parallel in the field under non-saline (1.0 dSm−1) and saline (12.0 dSm−1) conditions, and evaluated for a set of phenotypic traits. The performance of CS indicated it to have borderline salinity tolerance with respect to all of the traits except for leaf area (for which it behaved in as a salinity sensitive type). The SL 4D was early in booting, ear emergence, flowering and maturity, while 5D and 2B SLs were both late. The 2B SL produce 33% more ears than CS. The 5D SL under-performed with respect to ear weight, grain number per ear, grain weight per ear and 1000-grain weight both under non-saline and saline conditions. Under saline conditions, four SLs (1A>5A>1D>2B) outperformed Cs for ear length, and six SLs (1D>6A>4B>3A>3B>3D) showed an improved grain weight. The grains produce by the 2B SL were smaller than those of CS. Leaf area developed better in four SLs (4D>2B>1A>7D) than in CS.

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Simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity in 70 accessions of Aegilops crassa from Iran as well as to determine relationships among these accessions with 9 accessions of Aegilops tauschii (subsp. tauschii and strangulata ) and 5 Triticum aestivum landraces. All twenty SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and identified a total number of 149 alleles corresponding to an average of 7.5 alleles per locus. The highest and lowest PIC values were obtained in subsp. strangulata and Ae. crassa accessions, respectively. Data obtained were used to estimate genetic similarity using the Dice coefficient, and dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA method. The dendrogram separated the 84 accessions into two main groups. All species grouped according to their genomes. A good level of genetic diversity was observed in the accessions of Ae. crassa , even in geographically close regions, which can be used in the broadening of the genetic base of bread wheat. In addition, T. aestivum and subsp. tauschii were clustered further away from Ae. crassa , confirming probably chromosomal rearrangements in the Dgenome of Ae. crassa during the processes of evolution.

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Sixty durum wheat genotypes were analysed for protein (gliadin) polymorphism to find out the existing genetic diversity, and to assess its utility for improvement in grain yield along with quality traits. Six different Gli-B 1 alleles were found in land races, rust resistance sources and old released varieties, while two in recently released and advance lines. Most of the recently released varieties and advance lines showed γ-45/ Gli-1 alleles, which is the best type for pasta making quality, remaining showed γ-42/ Gli-1 allele, which are not good for pasta making. It is advisable to select for γ-45/ Gli-1 as a bio-chemical marker in the future breeding programmes. The rust resistance sources do not possess γ-45/ Gli-1 alleles, so these lines can be used as donors to introduce disease resistance in the good quality recently released varieties, which are containing γ-45/ Gli-1 alleles. From hierarchical analysis, it was found that landraces, released varieties and rust resistance sources are genetically distinct. The presence of new γ-gliadin patterns are interesting in rust resistance sources and need to be investigated for their role in pasta making as well as overall technological quality of durum wheat.

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