Authors:J. Somlai, B. Kanyár, R. Bodnár, CS. Németh, and Z. Lendvai
A significant dose contribution on the population could be derived from coal slags used as isolation material. Extremely high natural activities are measured in the coal slag, derived from the region of the settlement Ajka, Hungary. In some buildings monitored, the elevated -doses were nearly 5–10 times higher than the world average ones. The annual average indoor radon concentrations from the slag exceeded 400 Bq/m3 and in some cases up to 1200 Bq/m3. Due to the elevated exposure and the radon concentrations in the dwellings the annual dose was estimated to 8–24 mSv/y more than 5–10 times of the world average one.
Authors:N. Rana, Padam Singh, Ameer Azam, A. Naqvi, and D. Srivastava
The sandwiched pellet technique using Makrofol-E plastic track detectors has been employed to determine trace quantities of uranium in nine brands of flavored chewing tobaccos consumed by the Indian population. In this technique the nuclear reaction,235U(n,f), is used for the quantitative estimation of uranium. The maximum value of uranium (1.88 ppm) has been found in raw tobacco leaves (Surti), while the minimum (0.13 ppm) in Tulsi (Double Zero brand). Other seven brands showed intermediate values of U-contents which are also reported in this paper. These values are compared with the U-contents reported in the literature for other forms of tobaccos.
Authors:N. Aras, G. Yilmaz, F. Korkusuz, I. Olmez, B. Sepici, F. Eksioglu, and P. Bode
Bone samples from iliac crest were obtained from apparently healthy female (n = 4) and male (n = 8) subjects with ages between 15–50. Cortical and trabecular parts were separated and soft tissues like fat, muscle and blood were removed. Calcium, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe, Zn, Br, Sr, and Cs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and other techniques, and their relations were discussed. Fairly good agreement was obtained with literature data. These values may serve as reference values for subjects from a Turkish population.
Authors:Zhuang Guisun, Wang Yinson, Tan Mingguang, Zhi Min, and Pan Weiqing
Ten macro and trace elements were determined in the hair of GuiZhou and XinHuang mercury mine workers and children living near the mine by INAA and AFS. Comparative studies demonstrated that concentrations of certain elements were greater than those corresponding to the nonexposed population. The hair mercury contents of normal adults and children were 1.1 and 1.37 g g–1, respectively. Workers and children living in the polluted area show a mercury level range of 3.52–317 and 1.50–34.7 g g–1, respectively.
Authors:C. Colangelo, M. Huguet, M. Palacios, and A. Oliveira
The objective of the present work is the estimation of the210Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for210Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq·kg–1 to 80 Bq·kg–1. Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 Sv·y–1 to 600 Sv·y–1.
Authors:T. Cheng, J. Morris, S. Koirtyohann, V. Spate, and C. Baskett
Toenail samples were collected from 129 carpenters (average age 47). The bone and blood lead data for these carpenters have shown a broad range of lead-level exposure in this population. A total of 28 elements were measured in the sample set by a combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) methods. Of the elements measured, only Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Cd, Cu, F, and Ni were significantly correlated with lead. A statistical treatment of the overall data set, including principal component analysis, was further applied in an attempt to correlate the elements in the samples.
Periodically increasing and decreasing enthusiasm has accompanied the studies of medical significance of human hair elemental composition for at least two decades. In this field, nuclear analytical methods play an extremely important role, especially the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This paper tries to add some new knowledge to this problem. Two approaches are used — comparison of individual hair composition with certain diagnoses in clinic groups and comparison of population data with medical statistics. Rather large samples and multielement mathematical procedures helped reveal strong correlations valuable for diagnostic and health screening.
Authors:J. Phillips, F. Marcinowski, and K. Maconaughey
In an attempt to characterize radon distribution in residential settings, the USEPA initiated two distinct survey programs, the National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS) and the State/EPA Residential Radon Survey (SRRS). Each survey is different in their level of analysis, with the NRRS concentrating on a national sample, and the SRRS concentrating on individual statewide samples. Both surveys are random and statistically-valid, enabling the survey samples to be extrapolated to represent a much larger population. This paper details each survey's design and provides an examination of the unique approach each program uses to generate sound characterizations of radon distribution in the United States.
Authors:S. Hisamatsu, T. Katsumata, and Y. Takizawa
Tritium (3H) concentrations in diet samples from Akita City, northern Japan, and in human tissue samples from the general population of Akita Prefecture were analyzed to study fallout3H transfer.3H concentrations in human soft-tissue samples have been previously found to be similar to those in diet samples. In this study, higher organically-bound3H (OBT) concentrations were found in human costal cartilage and sternum samples than in the soft-tissues. Mean residence times of OBT in the cartilage and sternum were estimated to be 57 years and <6 years, respectively, with a single compartment model which took into account compartment growth.
Authors:M. Mason, J. Morris, V. Spate, C. Baskett, T. Nichols, T. Horsman, L. Le Marchand, L. Kolonel, and S. Yukimoto
The measurement of dietary selenium intake in a free-living population using dietary recall techniques has been shown to be
spurious. Consequently, in our laboratory, we have focused on the development of biologic monitors such as blood, nails, hair
and urine. In this paper, we report on the neutron activation analysis of whole blood, plasma and nail specimens collected
from 285 Caucasian subjects, all permanent residents of Hawaii, participating in a malignant melanoma trial. Correlations
between monitors are presented and discussed in the context of selenium determinants and integration of selenium intake.