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Ecology, 2001 (89) P. 555–561. Yuzo Kurokawa, Yoshiaki Iijima, Haruo Tanaka, Tetsuo Shioya and Sohzoh Suzuki. Nitrogen balance and seasonal fluctuations in soil nitrogen contents in a corn (Zea mays L)-rye (Secale

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Francis, H.A., Leitch, A.R., Koebner, R.M.D. 1995. Conversion of a RAPD-generated PCR product containing a novel dispersed repetitive element, into a fast and robust assay for the presence of rye chromatin in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 90 :636

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Abstract

Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.

The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.

Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.

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Archaeobotany, the study of plant macrofossils (seeds and fruits) obtained from archaeological excavations, becomes particularly important when there is very little or no archaeological, written or iconographical material available about the cultivation of the plants found. This is particularly the case in relation to the early Hungarian settlers.  The most significant event of the 10th century in the Carpathian Basin was the Hungarian conquest, yet this is the most fiercely debated period of Hungarian history, and the subject, in some cases, of extreme views. The information available on the way of life of the early Hungarians is very sparse, especially as regards farming and crop production skills. The conquering Hungarians were “semi-nomadic”. This may equally include mobile pastoralism and a limited extent of tillage and plant cultivation. Other archaeobotanical evidence suggests that the early Hungarians were not nomadic. There are very few seed remains directly relevant to the period of the Hungarian Conquest: the leading strata of early Hungarian society probably practised mobile pastoralism of a fundamentally Turkish character. It can be presumed that plant cultivation was the occupation assigned to common people who pursued a more sedentary way of life. It was probably these people whose plant remains were found in Lébény-Billedomb (near Gyor) in 1993 and are presented in this paper. This is the first evidence of plant cultivation by the early Hungarians. The finds from the 10th century settlement are rich in cereal species such as common wheat, barley, rye and millet.

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Research on cottage industry in the Carpathian Basin has not paid very much attention to work with straw. In peasant self-sufficiency, in addition to wickerwork and rush weaving, plaits made of wheat and rye straw were among the main materials used for agricultural and household storage containers. In some areas the making of straw hats as an income-supplementing activity carried out together with agricultural work also acquired special importance. In the 19th century with the expansion of trade this cottage industry in places rose to the level of a manufacturing industry. At the turn of the century the movements promoting domestic industry and the trade exhibitions gave special impetus to this activity. It flourished right up to the Trianon decision of 1920. As a consequence of the dictated peace Hungary lost around two-thirds of its territory and economic ties were suddenly severed. In some parts of the Great Plain, e.g. in Hajdúnánás (today Hajdú-Bihar County), and especially in the villages of the Székelyföld region, traditional straw hat making has survived right up to the present as a women's activity, providing a livelihood for many women working at home. This article deals with the industrial history background, with questions affecting cottage industry in general, and with the past of once flourishing trade connections, devoting special attention to a few villages in Hungary and in the Székelyföld region in the territory of today's Romania.

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The effect of low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits (GS) in presence of high molecular weight (HMW)-GS has over SDS sedimentation volume (SDSS) and kernel elasticity is presented. Twenty-six wheat lines having different origins and classified by SDS-PAGE into 14 different LMW-GS genotypic allelic groups were analyzed. When good HMW-GS background, i.e. Glu-1 1, 2*, 7 + 9 or 17 + 18 and 5 + 10 was associated with a number of allelic variants of Glu-3 loci (LMW-GS), i.e. Glu-A3 c and b; Glu-B3 g, h, d, higher kernel modulus of elasticity and SDSS were generally present. However, when poor HMW-GS background was present, i.e. Glu-1 null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12, a poor to medium modulus of elasticity and SDSS were generally found. Glu-B3 j allelic group, which possesses the wheat-rye translocation showed a tendency to have low elastic modulus, high plastic work (WP) and low SDSS. The effects of good LMW-GS are enhanced by a good HMW-GS background, yielding higher kernel elasticity and SDSS.

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The 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocations had been used in wheat breeding programs worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the 1BL/1RS translocation in SeriM82 /Babax recombinant population. 167 lines of this population were assayed under well-irrigated, terminal drought, heat and a combination of heat and drought stress conditions in two years. 5S rDNA and Iag95 markers were used to differentiate genotypes with or without the1BL/1RS translocation. Presence of 1BL/1RS translocation reduced grain yield (YLD), grain per spike (GSP) and grain per m2 (GM2). QTLs in 1 BL/1RS segments indicated increased thousand-grain weight (TGW), chlorophyll content, spikelet per spike (SPLS), spike compactness (SCOM) and awn length (AWL) but reduced YLD, GSP and GM2. The 1BL/1RS carrying lines’ response varied between assayed environments. Plants of drought trials were more affected by 1BL/1RS compared to others. Differences in the effects of 1BL/1RS and QTLs suggest that gene expression at translocation loci is restricted to specific environmental conditions. In general, the 1BL/1RS translocation could not be a suitable source of genetic diversity for enhancing grain yield under heat and drought stresses.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: F. Békés, K. Ács, Gy. Gell, Cs. Lantos, A-M. Kovács, Zs. Birinyi, and J. Pauk

Consumption of “gluten-containing” diet causes disease for a significant minority of people who consume foods derived from wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oat. The fact is, however, that in several types of diseases related to the consumption of “gluten-containing” cereals, the trigger compounds are not components of gluten. The current view of medical experts is that, excluding people suffering from celiac disease, the majority of individuals who are feeling better on the “wheat-free” or “gluten-free” diet could select a food containing much healthier, low level of fermentable oligosaccharides (often called as FODMAP). To satisfy the specific health related demands of certain consumer groups, the challenge is in front of cereal breeding to develop new, “healthier” germplasms, suitable to produce such products by the food industry. This report aims to give an overview of some aspects of recent developments in this booming area, (i) summarizing the up-to-date knowledge on cereals-related health disorders; (ii) reporting on the status of developing celiac-safe cereals, and finally (iii) highlighting the potential of developing “healthier” spelt-based cereal products through the progress in an ongoing spelt breeding program.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Demichelis, L.S. Vanzetti, J.M. Crescente, M.M. Nisi, L. Pflüger, C.T. Bainotti, M.B. Cuniberti, L.R. Mir, and M. Helguera

Seed storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins) play a key role in the determination of dough and bread-making quality in bread wheat. This is due to the interaction between high and low molecular weight glutenins subunits and gliadins, via complex inter- and intramolecular bondings. In contrast to high molecular weight glutenins, low molecular weight glutenins and gliadins analysis is difficult due to the large number of expressed subunits and coding genes. For these reasons the role of individual proteins/subunits in the determination of wheat quality is less clear. In this work we studied the effect of gene clusters Glu-A3/Gli-A1 and Glu-D3/Gli-D1 in bread-making quality parameters using 20 F4-6 families from the cross Prointa Guazú × Prointa Oasis, both cultivars carrying identical high molecular weight glutenins subunits composition and presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation, but differing in Glu-A3/Glu-D3 low molecular weight glutenins subunits and Gli-A1/Gli-D1 gliadins patterns. ANCOVA analysis showed a significant contribution of the Glu-D3/Gli-D1 gene cluster provided by Prointa Guazú to gluten strength explained by mixograph parameters MDS and PW, and Zeleny Test. Markers tagging Prointa Guazú Glu-D3/Gli-D1 alleles are available for strong gluten selection in breeding programs.

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Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is one of the most common viruses on cereal crops in Poland. Studies were undertaken aiming at molecular characterization of Polish isolates of the virus. The presence of two main groups, WDV-barley- and WDV-wheat-specific forms, in field samples has been confirmed. Detection and differentiation of WDV isolates was conducted using immuno-capture polymerase chain reactions. The studies were carried out on a set of 68 samples collected from different parts of the country. Obtained results demonstrated that WDV-wheat-specific form can infect all tested cereals: wheat, triticale, rye and barley while WDV-barley-specific form was identified mainly in barley and in rare cases in wheat plants. Comparative analysis of coat protein gene was performed using 16 WDV isolates originated from different hosts revealed high (>98%) nucleotide sequence identity. Moreover, WDVwheat- specific (Pol-WDV-W) and WDV-barley-specific (WDV-B) isolates were fully sequenced. Based on nucleotide sequence similarity, Pol-WDV-W should be classified as WDV-E and WDV-B as WDV-F strains. This is the first report of the complete sequence of WDV isolates from Poland.

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