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Background and aims

Despite recent growth in sports betting advertising, minimal research has examined the influence of different advertising message attributes on betting attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to identify which attributes of sports betting advertisements most engage attention, interest, desire and likelihood of betting among non-problem, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem gamblers.

Methods

A novel approach utilizing an experimental design incorporating conjoint analysis examined the effects of: three message formats (commentary, on-screen display, and studio crossover); four appeals (neutral, jovial, ease of placing the bet, and sense of urgency); three types of presenters (match presenter, sports betting operator, and attractive non-expert female presenter); and four bet types (traditional, exotic key event, risk-free, and micro-bet). A professional film company using paid actors produced 20 mock television advertisements simulating typical gambling messages based on the conjoint approach. These were embedded into an online survey of 611 Australian adults.

Results

The most attention-grabbing attributes were type of presenter and type of bet. The attractive non-expert female presenter gained more attention from all gambler groups than other presenters. The type of bet was most persuasive in converting attention into likely betting among all gambler groups, with the risk-free bet being much more persuasive than other bet types. Problem gamblers were distinct by their greater attraction to in-play micro-bets.

Discussion and conclusion

Given the potential for incentivized bets offering financial inducements and for in-play micro-bets to undermine harm minimization and consumer protection, regulators and wagering operators should reconsider whether these bet types are consistent with their responsible gambling objectives.

Open access

The case for taxing financial transactions merely to raise more revenues from the financial sector is not particularly strong. Better alternatives to tax the financial sector are likely to be available. However, a tax on financial transactions could be justified in order to limit socially undesirable transactions when more direct means of doing so are unavailable for political or practical reasons. Some financial transactions are indeed likely to do more harm than good, especially when they contribute to the systemic risk of the financial system. However, such a financial transaction tax should be very small, much smaller than the negative externalities in question, because it is a blunt instrument that also drives out socially useful transactions. There is a case for taxing over-the-counter derivative transactions at a somewhat higher rate than exchange-based derivative transactions. More targeted remedies to drive out socially undesirable transactions should be sought in parallel, which would allow, after their implementation, to reduce or even phase out financial transaction taxes.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors:
Kinga Balla
,
István Gyene
,
Klára Szentágothai
,
Zsuzsa Bak
, and
Györgyi Mezei

Background: The aim of this study was to compare fitness levels of 8–13 years old healthy and asthmatic boys from 1985 and 2004. Subjects and methods: The swimmer asthmatics from 1985 (SA1, n = 40) and from 2004 (SA2, n = 26) participated in the same therapeutic swimming training. Healthy, non-swimmer children (NonSH1 in 1985, n = 41 and NonSH2 in 2004, n = 54) participated in physical education classes. Results: Comparing the fitness outcomes of all boys from 1985 with that obtained in 2004 a significant difference was found ( p < 0.0001, boys from 1985 had better results). Fitness of NonSH1 was significantly better than fitness of NonSH2 ( p < 0.0001), similarly SA1 had better fitness results than SA2 ( p = 0.0003). Conclusion: There was a trend between 1985 and 2004, so that the fitness of healthy and asthmatic children worsened. Further investigations are needed to clarify the medical and social aspects of the results.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors:
Kinga Balla
,
Alexandra Szabó
,
István Gyene
,
Zsuzsa Jáki
, and
Györgyi Mezei

Purpose: The aim of our investigation was to compare the quality of life (QoL), anxiety and depressive symptoms of regular swimmer and non-swimmer young asthmatics. Methods: 24 swimmer asthmatics, who took part in a complex swimming exercise programme, and 51 non-swimmer asthmatics were asked to fill out the Hungarian validated form of the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory for Children (H. STAIC) and the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Results: No difference was found between swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatic groups regarding QoL, anxiety and depressive symptoms. In the group of swimmer asthmatics significant activity impairment was found in PAQLQ ( p < 0.0001). Non-swimmer asthmatic girls show significantly more anxiety symptoms than boys ( p = 0.023). Furthermore, girls have a tendency to show more depressive symptoms compared to boys. Depressive symptoms are significantly fewer in the swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatic boy groups than in the non-swimmer healthy Hungarian boy population sample. No age-, asthma severity- or BMI-specific correlations were found in the swimmer or non-swimmer asthmatics group regarding PAQLQ, H. STAIC or CDI. Conclusions: Regular swimming training has several positive effects, but when analyzing the children’s QoL, anxiety and depressive symptoms in the swimmer and non-swimmer asthmatics group, only few subgroup-specific differences were found.

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(Central Statistical Office) : A nemzetközi idegenforgalom és a turisztikai kereslet jellemzői 2004 (Data on the international tourism and the tourist business in 2004) (In Hungarian) KSH-kiadvány (Newsletter of KSH), Budapest , 2005 . [24]. Goodyer

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In this article the author would like to present and study several aspects of vine-growing and wine-making, such as wine tourism, consumption, identity. He offers an anthropological view of these aspects, showing how they work in various wine areas in Castilla y León.

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Visegrád, with its 1800 inhabitants, is considered to be the smallest town of Hungary. The development of the town center is a fine example for how the original exaggerating ideas were altered due to the economic crisis - besides its negative effects - and facilitated the birth of a sustainable development, satisfying the continuous needs of the local community and the temporary demands of tourism.

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Abstract

Synthesis, characterizations, and thermal behavior of Na2[MoO(O2)2(C2O4)] was studied. The thermally induced events will be observed by comparing the FT-IR spectra of the initial compound and of the char at 300 and 500 °C. The TG data were obtained at different heating rates: β = 2.5, 4, 5, and 10 °C min−1 in air and nitrogen (50 mL min−1), and the TG/DTG data were processed with the following methods: Friedman, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, and modified NPK method.

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Abstract

New solid amorphous compounds of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), and Sm(III) with 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (L,chrysin) were obtained. Their composition and some physicochemical properties were studied by elementary analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, magnetic measurements, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, and infrared spectroscopies. Upon heating, the hydrated compounds [LnL2(H2O)2Cl]·2H2O decomposed to the oxides. Structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of obtained results. It was found that chelation of the metal ion occurs at the 5-hydroxy-4-keto site.

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Abstract

TG/DTG/DTA curves can be used to estimate alimentary fats quality and antioxidants insertion efficiency. Sunflower oil obtained from Carnia hybrid and pork lard were used as matrices for the non-isothermal measurements. The first stage of non-isothermal decomposition is mostly important for the characterization of the fats thermal stability. The corresponding onset temperature is a good value for the comparison of different fats thermal stability or for the effectiveness evaluation in case of antioxidant insertion. In this study, it can be seen a considerable improvement of the fats thermal stability by adding small amounts from a natural antioxidant liquid mixture (obtained by alcoholic maceration of equal amounts of seven plants, namely: milfoil, rosemary, marjoram, thyme, lovage, oregano, and basil). Chlorophylls removal from the plant extract using two different adsorbents was accompanied by a four time decrease of the antiradical activity (measured by the DPPH method) with Sephadex LH20 and seventeen times decrease when activated carbon was used.

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