Bukhalid, R. A., Takeuchi, T., Labeda, D., Loria, R. (2002) Horizontal transfer of the plant virulence gene,
, and flanking sequences among genetically distinct
strains in the diastatochromogenes cluster.
, tet M), chloramphenicol [ cat (pC221), cat (pC194), cat (pC223)], and aminoglycosides [ aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3′)-IIIa ] as well as genes encoding virulence factors: enterotoxins ( se A, se B, se C, se D, se E), shock syndrome toxin ( tst
ability to interrupt bacterial quorum-sensing systems which are essential for regulating gene expression, virulence, and biofilm formation [ 11 , 14 ]. In 2006, Choo et al. reported that the extract of Vanilla planifolia Andrews could effectively
analysis was performed using the web-based MLST-DTU tool [ 23 ]. Resfinder version 4.1 and the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) were used for the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes [ 24 , 25 ], while the virulence genes were
pathogenicity and virulence of S. aureus are associated with its capacity to produce several virulence factors such as toxins (exfoliative toxins ( eta , etb ), Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1), and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), as well as adhesion
The occurrence of sexual compatibility types (mating types) was studied in a set of 59 Bremia lactucae isolates originating from 33 naturally infected and wild populations of Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce) plants occurring in the Czech Republic, Germany and France. The isolates were collected in the period 1997-1999 as part of detailed population studies of virulence structure. Both compatibility types (B1 and B2) were recorded. However, the majority of the isolates was determined as type B2, with only two isolates being type B1. The reasons for and influence of this sexual structure are discussed in relation to the virulence of pathogen populations and interactions between wild and crop pathosystems. Occurrence of natural sexual reproduction of B. lactucae on L. serriola plants was extremely rare. Virulence variation of B. lactucae populations occurring on L. serriola would not seem to be related to sexual reproduction.
The virulence frequency of 750 wheat powdery mildew isolates of wheat genotypes, carrying 23 Pm-genes and gene combinations, was studied over ten consecutive years from 2004 to 2013. Seventy-eight previously known and 39 new pathotypes were identified during this period. The results indicate that the majority of Pm-genes have high level of virulence. Sixty to ninety percent of the isolates were virulent to Pm6, Pm8, Pm8+11, Pm2+4b+8, Pm3g, Pm10+15, Pm10+14+15. The virulence frequency was variable for Pm1a, Pm2, Pm3a, Pm3b, Pm3c, Pm5, Pm7 genes and reached high level in certain years. The virulence frequency to genes Pm20, Pm37, Pm4a+ and to gene combination with Pm3c+5a+35 and breeding lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06 ranged from 1 to 8%. Bread wheat lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06, derived from interspecific crosses, proved to be highly resistant to powdery mildew.