Authors:Kamil Haliloglu, Ali Ozturk, Metin Tosun, and Sancar Bulut
Twenty-five winter wheat cultivars (cv.s) were evaluated for their ability to produce embryogenic callus, eventually plantlets, as well as the agronomic performance in the field to determine the relationship between tissue culture and agronomic traits. There were significant genotype effects on callus formation, callus fresh and dry weight, callus moisture content, embryogenic calli formation and the frequency of plant regeneration. Relationship between tissue culture and agronomic traits was examined by correlation and regression analysis. Important relationships between the two traits were found such as the frequency of plantlets regeneration from immature embryos could be estimated from spike number per m
. Such relationships may be due to the fact that plantlets regeneration might be controlled by the genetic system controlling the incidence of spike number per m
or partial linkage with it. This result suggests that it is possible to screen genotypes with good tissue culture traits directly at the agronomic trait level, a practice rather simple and straightforward.
Authors:J. Żuchowski, I. Kapusta, B. Szajwaj, K. Jończyk, and W. Oleszek
Epidemiological data suggest that consumption of whole-grain and bran may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. The beneficial health effects are usually attributed to the presence of dietary fibre and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic acids. Wheat is an important component of the human diet and may be a significant source of phenolic antioxidants. To date, few studies have investigated the effect of various agricultural practices on levels of secondary metabolites in crops. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic acid content in four winter wheat cultivars, grown using conventional and organic agricultural practices. Five phenolic acids were detected by HPLC analyses. Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in the grain of all tested wheat varieties. The remaining phenolic acids, i.e. sinapic acid,
-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, and
-hydroxybenzoic acid, were present in considerably lower amounts. Significant differences among cultivars in concentration of particular phenolic acids, as well as in the total phenolic acid content were observed. The effect of various agricultural practices on phenolic acid levels in wheat grains was also analysed. Organically grown plants are usually considered to contain more secondary metabolites. In this study, however, organic agriculture did not lead to a significant increase in phenolic acids. Only a small, statistically irrelevant trend towards higher levels of phenolic acids in organic wheat samples was demonstrated.
Authors:Sonja Maric, Tihomir Cupic, Goran Jukic, Ivan Varnica, and Dario Dunkovic
.A. — Eskridge K.M. — Nelson L.A.: 2005. Genetic improvement trends in agronomic performances and end-use quality characteristics among hard red winterwheat cultivars in Nebraska — Euphytica vol. 144 no. 1–2 187–198 pp
Authors:Erika Kutasy, József Csajbók, and Éva Hunyadi Borbély
Shangguan, Z. P., Shao, M. A., Dyckmans, J. (2000): Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetyc gas exchange and water use efficiency in winterwheat. Environmental and Experimental Botany 44: 141–149. p
Authors:I.N. Leonova, A.I. Stasyuk, E.S. Skolotneva, and E.A. Salina
Cultivation of winter wheat varieties in the West Siberian region of Russia has competitive advantages compared to spring varieties: utilization of spring-summer moisture, early maturation and harvest and a high yield potential. The poor resistance of winter varieties to foliar diseases results in significant yield losses and facilitates the spread of pathogens to the spring wheat cultivars. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of molecular markers specific for VRN-1 and Lr loci in selecting winter wheat genotypes resistant to leaf rust. The winter wheat cultivars Biyskaya ozymaya and Filatovka were crossed with spring wheat introgression lines 21-4 and 5366-180 and the spring wheat cultivar Tulaikovskaya 10 carrying LrTt2, LrAsp5 and Lr6Ai#2 loci from Triticum timopheevii, Aegilops speltoides and Thynopyrum intermedium, respectively. To identify winter wheat plants homozygous for target loci, F2 populations were screened with functional markers to VRN-1 genes and with markers specific for alien genetic material. Based on the genotyping analysis of 371 F2 plants a total of 44 homozygous genotypes with winter habit was identified. There were eight genotypes containing Lr loci among them. Evaluation of F2-derived F3-4 families for both seedling and adult resistance showed that only one F3-4 family had moderate susceptible reaction type to the field population of leaf rust. Others ranged from nearly immune to resistant with severity of 5%. The data also indicated the utility of the VRN-1 allele-specific markers for detection of genotypes with winter habit without vernalization at early stages of plant breeding.