Authors:Carloalberto Petti, Khan Mojibur, and Fiona Doohan
strain MKB 158, can inhibit the development of Fusarium seedling blight disease on wheat and barley. Application of this and other pseudomonads as head sprays inhibits the development of Fusarium head blight disease (FHB) disease on wheat and barley under both field and glasshouse conditions.
strains MKB 158 and MKB 249 also reduced DON contamination of grain under field conditions. Evidence suggests that
does not directly inhibit the growth of
, but that it potentiates host resistance against this disease. Transcriptome profiling identified barley genes differentially expressed as early events in (a) bacterium-induced resistance to seedling blight and (b) heads following
co-inoculation. Bacterium-potentiated resistance to
affects the transcription of many genes that are involved in diverse processes, including cell rescue and defence, metabolism, cell cycle and DNA replication and signalling.
Authors:T. Warzecha, T. Adamski, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Surma, P. Goliński, J. Perkowski, J. Chełkowski, H. Wiśniewska, K. Krystkowiak, and A. Kuczyńska
., Foremska, E., Góral, T., Chełkowski, J. 1999.
Fusariumheadblight reactions and accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON) and some of its derivatives in kernels of wheat, triticale and rye. J. Phytopathol.
Authors:S. M. Imathiu, R. V. Ray, M. Back, M. C. Hare, and S. G. Edwards
Champeil , A. , Dore , T. and Fourbet , J. F. ( 2004 a): Fusariumheadblight: epidemiological origin of the effects of cultural practices on head blight attacks and the production of mycotoxins by Fusarium in wheat grains
Authors:G. Vida, M. Cséplő, G. Gulyás, I. Karsai, T. Kiss, J. Komáromi, E. László, K. Puskás, Z. Wang, C. Pace, Z. Bedő, L. Láng, and O. Veisz
Among the factors which determine yield reliability an important role is played by disease resistance. One of the breeding aims in the Martonvásár institute is to develop wheat varieties with resistance to major diseases. The winter wheat varieties bred in Martonvásár are examined in artificially inoculated nurseries and greenhouses for resistance to economically important pathogens. The effectiveness of designated genes for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust has been monitored over a period of several decades. None of the designated major resistance genes examined in greenhouse tests is able to provide complete resistance to powdery mildew; however, a number of leaf rust resistance genes provide full protection against pathogen attack (Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28 and Lr35). In the course of marker-assisted selection, efficient resistance genes (Lr9, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr29) have been incorporated into Martonvásár wheat varieties. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr26, Lr34 and Lr37 in the Martonvásár gene pool was identified using molecular markers. New sources carrying alien genetic material have been tested for powdery mildew and leaf rust resistance. Valuable Fusarium head blight resistance sources have been identified in populations of old Hungarian wheat varieties. Species causing leaf spots (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodorum) have gradually become more frequent over the last two decades. Tests on the resistance of the host plant were begun in Martonvásár four years ago and regular greenhouse tests on seedlings have also been initiated.
Authors:S. Bencze, G. Vida, K. Balla, E. Varga-László, and O. Veisz
Infection with fungal pathogens on wheat varieties with different levels of resistance was tested at ambient (NC, 390 ppm) and elevated (EC, 750 ppm) atmospheric CO2 levels in the phytotron. EC was found to affect many aspects of the plant-pathogen interaction. Infection with most fungal diseases was usually found to be promoted by elevated CO2 level in susceptible varieties. Powdery mildew, leaf rust and stem rust produced more severe symptoms on plants of susceptible varieties, while resistant varieties were not infected even at EC. The penetration of Fusarium head blight (FHB) into the spike was delayed by EC in Mv Mambo, while it was unaffected in Mv Regiment and stimulated in Mv Emma. EC increased the propagation of FHB in Mv Mambo and Mv Emma. Enhanced resistance to the spread of Fusarium within the plant was only found in Mv Regiment, which has good resistance to penetration but poor resistance to the spread of FHB at NC. FHB infection was more severe at EC in two varieties, while the plants of Mv Regiment, which has the best field resistance at NC, did not exhibit a higher infection level at EC.The above results suggest that breeding for new resistant varieties will remain a useful means of preventing more severe infection in a future with higher atmospheric CO2 levels.
Authors:K. Stuper-Szablewska, D. Kurasiak-Popowska, J. Nawracała, and J. Perkowski
The aim of this study was to determine the profile of fungal metabolites and antioxidant substances from plants on a representative population of wheat cultivars grown in Poland. Tests were conducted on grain of 23 wheat cultivars in three experimental variants: natural infection (control), chemical crop protection, and artificial inoculation with the fungi F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Grains were analysed in terms of infection rate, mycotoxin, ergosterol, free and bound phenolic acid content, as well as antioxidant capacity. Calculated Fusarium head blight index (FHB index) ranged from 0% to 24% in the control, from 0% to 95% after inoculation and from 0 to 3% following chemical crop protection treatments. The highest concentration of ergosterol was detected in seeds from inoculated plots, with a mean value of 26.69 mg/kg. The highest mean concentration calculated for total toxin content was recorded after inoculation (7.833 mg/kg). The mean value for ferulic acid for inoculated samples resulted 2574 mg/kg, while for chemically protected samples 1158 mg/kg was obtained.
Based on of discriminant analysis genotypes can be separated for inoculation 100%, for chemical crop protection 95%, and for natural infection 90%. Amongst 12 analysed phenolic acids the highest discrimination power was found for gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) are mycotoxins frequently detected in
-infected cereal grain. Both toxins are produced by
during the development of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease. We are developing tools to allow us to simultaneously detect DON and ZON production by
species. We generated a transgenic
strain that expresses fluorescent proteins under the control of promoters of genes that are essential for the biosynthesis of DON (trichodiene synthase;
) and ZON (a promoter that drives two polyketide synthetases,
). We developed a duplex real time PCR assays for the concurrent analysis of
(another gene essential for DON production). We are currently generating a multiplex real time PCR version of this assay to detect
and a plant actin (
) gene. This assay can be used to detect DON and ZON producers in grain;
serves as a positive control plant gene in the reaction. We are also developing a multiplex real time RT-PCR assay to detect
F. culmorum/F. graminearum
) gene. Incorporation of the
enables normalization of
transcript expression, relative to fungal abundance.
Authors:Antonio Logrieco, Antonio Moretti, Giuseppina Mule, Costantino Paciolla, and Alberto Ritieni
head blight (FHB) of cereals is a well known disease caused by a complex of several toxigenic species of
. FHB can reduce grain yield and quality, because of the accumulation of mycotoxins in cereal grains and derived foods and feeds. The pathogen mainly reported as causal agent of FHB is
, that produces Deoxynivalenol (DON), the mycotoxin mostly associated to the disease. However in the last decade, in Europe, in addition to DON, the esadepsipeptides Enniatins (ENs) and Beauvericin (BEA) have been often reported as cereal contaminants, in association with different species such as
. The natural occurrence of high amounts of BEA and ENs in FHB small grains, evaluated with the phytotoxic and zootoxic properties of these metabolites, compel to an examination of their potential role in contributing to the severity of FHB. On the other hand, the recent studies that have provided further data on the biological role of the esadepsipeptide in plants and their toxicity toward plants, animal and humans, make it worthwhile to expand the knowledge on the significance and the toxicity of these frequent contaminants of cereals.