The CITATION code based on neutron diffusion theory is used for flux calculation inside voluminous sample in prompt gamma
activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source (241Am-Be). The code used the specific parameters related to energy spectrum source, irradiation system materials (shielding,
reflector, etc.), geometry and elemental composition of the sample. The flux distribution (thermal and fast) was calculated
on three-dimensional geometry for the system: source, air, and polyethylene and water cylindrical sample of 125 liters. The
thermal flux was calculated in series of points inside the sample, and agreed with the results obtained by measurements with
good statistical uncertainty. The maximum thermal flux was measured at distance of 4.1 cm and calculated at 4.3 cm by the
CITATION code. Beyond a depth of 7.2 cm, the ratio of thermal flux to fast flux increases up to twice and allows us the optimization
of the detection system in the scope of in-situ PGNAA.
Authors:Zs. Révay, G. Molnár, T. Belgya, Zs. Kasztovszky, and R. Firestone
A major obstacle to the use of the prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) method has so far been the lack of a suitable library. Therefore, new measurements have been performed at the PGAA facility at Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) in order to create a prompt -ray catalog for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Prompt -ray energies and associated k0-factors have been determined by internal standardization. The resulting catalog contains prompt -ray data from neutron capture and other reactions such as (n,), and decay -ray data from short-lived reaction products. Data have been measured for nearly all stable elements, from hydrogen to uranium. Generally, data for several isotopes are given, to enable isotopic analysis as well.
Authors:I. Oláh, Zs. Bendő, Gy. Szakmány, V. Szilágyi, and B. Péterdi
et al. 1998 = G. L. Molnár— Zs. Révay— R. L. Paul— R. M. Lindstrom : Prompt-gammaactivation analysis using the k 0 approach. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 234 (1998) 21–26.
Authors:D. Becker, D. Anderson, R. Lindstrom, R. Greenberg, K. Garrity, and E. Mackey
Analyses for certification have been made for the determination of 30 elements in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Tomato Leaves renewal reference material, SRM 1573a. Three of the analytical techniques used were instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), and prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). These techniques provided data on 19 elements by INAA, 10 elements by PGAA, and 7 elements by RNAA, with some overlap between techniques. For example, INAA was able to obtain overall analytical uncerainties (at the 95% confidence level) averaging ±2.2% for major and minor constituents (Ca, Mg, K), ±3.3% for constituents from 1 to 1000 g/g (Na, Fe, Al, Mn, Ba, Zn, Rb, La, Cr), and ±6.4% for elements between 10 and 1000 ng/g (Co, V, Se, Th, Sc, Sb), using sample dry weights of approximately 150 mg. These analyses represent the most extensive use to date of nuclear analytical techniques in the certification of a trace element SRM at NIST.
A novel approach is implemented to alleviate some persistent problems in neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). Detection sensitivities of PGAA are often restricted by the following factors: poor signal to noise ratios, interferences from background signals, and, in some cases, overlapping energy lines from different origins, namely ultra short-lived decay lines interfering with prompt decay. Timing the gamma-ray acquisition with the actual capture events using a pulsed beam of cold neutrons allows discrimination between prompt and delayed emissions from a sample source as well as against background events. Coincidence gating selects the prompt gamma-ray emissions. Contributions of background capture gamma-rays are suppressed because of different flight times of neutrons to the sources of background radiation, providing a reduction in direct gamma-ray interferences. Anti-coincidence gating allows measurement of only decay radiation that originates from short-lived activated states of the nuclides after capture. Spectra of decaying nuclides are free of interfering prompt activities, as well as have lower continuum background from Compton scattering of high-energy prompt gamma-rays in the detector. The measurements provide the opportunity to use ultra-short half-life nuclides for analytical purposes, no sample transfer times are lost, and repetitive activation and counting cycles are achieved with the use of pulsed neutron beams.
Authors:Pao-Shu Chang, Chien Chung, Lig-Ji Yuan, and Pao-Shan Weng
This work describes a nuclear facility forin vivo prompt gamma activation analysis (IVPGAA) using a moderated neutron beam from a 0.1 W Tsing-Hua Mobile Educational Reactor (THMER). The IVPGAA measurement is a new technique for toxic cadmium determination in organs, which can efficiently be used in clinical diagnosis. The low-power nuclear reactor provides a total neutron flux of 3.3·104 n·cm–2·s–1 on the surface of the central vertical neutron beam tube to which a liquid phantom is positioned. The capability of such partial-body irradiation facility is demonstrated. The detection limit of cadmium in the left kidney for a skin dose equivalent of 1.66 mSv (166 mrem) was 1.34 mg in a 500-s irradiation/counting period, and the sensitivity in the left kidney was 103 counts mg–1·mSv–1. The performance of IVPGAA system using the THMER nuclear facility therefore has the advantages of mobility and feasibility with high sensitivity under low neutron and gamma doses.
Authors:Yu. Bourmistenko, I. Ivanov, V. Sviridova, and Yu. Feoktistov
The possibilities of using a computer to optimize the conditions of gamma-activation analysis are considered. Criteria of
optimum conditions are formulated. The optimization program is constructed of the following operations being automatically
performed: (1) determination of a list of isotopes and their gamma-lines formed during the interaction between the activating
bremsstrahlung and the substance whose elemental composition elements to be analyzed plus matrix is preliminarily given; (2)
optimization of the analysis time regimes and the value of the maximum energy of the activating bremsstrahlung; (3) choice
of a gamma-line of the isotope of an element to be analyzed by which the quantitative determination of this element is expedient.
For these purposes a catalogue of nuclear-physical constants (half-lives and energies which was compiled from published data
tables of gamma-line outputs obtained experimentally under standardized conditions for different values of the maximum energy
of the bremsstrahlung as well as mathematical models of the monoenergetic gamma-ray spectra) has been used.
Prompt k0-factors relative to chlorine and relative g-emission intensities were determined for the strong non-1/v absorbers 113Cd, 149Sm, 151Eu,155Gd and 157Gd. Measurements were performed using the SNU-KAERI prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). For proper experimental determination of the prompt k0-factors, the effective g-factor and cadmium ratio were taken into account, in consideration of the effects from the non-1/v capture cross section and neutron spectrum in the thermal and epithermal energy region. By using the actual spectrum of the neutron beam in this study, the effective g-factor was obtained by calculation, and the influence of epithermal neutrons on the capture rate was corrected by measuring the cadmium ratio for each non-1/v target isotope. The measured prompt k0-factors were used to check the consistency between the existing dataset of the absolute g-emission intensity and the 2200 m/s capture cross section for these isotopes.
Authors:B. Fazekas, G. Molnár, T. Belgya, L. Dabolczi, and A. Simonits
In short time activation analysis prompt gamma-activation analysis and in high rate -ray spectroscopy in general, the shape parameters for peaks and back ground usually vary, rendering spectrum evaluation codes based on a fixed shape calibration unsuitable. An interactive version of the well-known, fully automatic -ray spectrum analysis code HYPERMET has been developed in C ++ for the IBM-PC. It runs under MS-DOS, in conventional memory, and can handle up to 16k-channel spectra, recorded with CANBERRA's System 100 and AccuSpec and with ORTEC's ACE plug-in MCA cards. A Windows-like graphics environment is provided with mouse controlled pull-down menus, pop-up windows and rubber band expansion. All basic features of HYPERMET such as fully automatic peak search, nonlinear fitting of multiplets with automatically adjusted Gaussian peak widths exponential tails and a complex background function have been retained. All details of the fitting procedure are recorded in a data base, hence any fitted region can be retrieved and modified interactively, even after a fully automatic spectrum evaluation. The program also provides an output peak list in SAMPO90 format for further processing. The latter format is widely used in a number of sample analysis programs such as KAYZERO a software package fork0 standardization in neutron activation analysis.
There is an increasing need in industry, arising from both economic and environmental considerations, to reduce costs and improve product quality through the use of automation. The use of on-line analysis instrumentation provides plant operators with a means for continuous measurement and rapid response. This can result in better control of process efficiency, product quality and resource utilization, all of which produce significant economic and environmental benefits. On-line measurement of bulk elemental composition is important in many industrial applications and is best achieved with highly penetrating neutron-gamma techniques. This paper presents recent work by CSIRO Minerals on the development and implementation of such a technique, NITA (neutron inelastic-scattering and thermal-capture analysis). NITA is distinct from the more common PGNAA (prompt neutron gamma activation analysis) technique in its use of fast neutron sources to generate inelastic scattering reactions, and in its consequent ability to excite gamma-rays from industrially important elements such as carbon and oxygen. The paper will compare the features of NITA and PGNAA analysers and will discuss applications of NITA in industry, including the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications and the on-conveyor belt monitoring of cement raw meal and coal.