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Abstract  

Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular mass was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (ytterbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the degree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (free model), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The growth-of-nuclei Avrami kinetic model A3/2 has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction especially when 2 phr was added. 0.5 and 1 phr showed very few kinetic differences between them.

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This work is a study, by simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), of the oxidation of a water resistant aluminum nitride powder which has a special protective coating, and an uncoated AlN powder which has become partially hydrated during its use. The activation energy for oxidation is estimated by the Kissinger and isoconversional methods. In the former method, the temperatures of the oxidation peaks were obtained from DTA and DTG curves. The activation energies for oxidation of the water resistant AlN, obtained by the Kissinger method, are 35710 kJ mol–1, 39212 kJ mol–1 using respectively DTG and DTA data. For the uncoated AlN, the values are 2437 and 2578 kJ mol–1, respectively. By the isoconversional method, the average values obtained for coated and uncoated samples are, respectively, 32310 and 2247 kJ mol–1. Therefore, the special coating, which protects the aluminum nitride from humidity action, also provides a higher resistance to oxidation.

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Abstract  

The influence of the specific surface area on the crystallization processes of two silica gels with different specific surface areas has been investigated in non-isothermal conditions using DTA technique. The activation energies of the crystallization processes were calculated using four isoconversional methods: Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Starink and Tang. It has been established that, the decrease of the surface area from S=252.62 m2 g−1, in the case of sample GS2, to S=2.52 m2 g−1, in the case of sample GS1, has determined a slight increase of the activation energy of the crystallization process of the gels. Regardless of the isoconversional method used, the activation energy (E α) decreases monotonously with the crystallized fraction (α), which confirms the complex mechanism of gels crystallization. It has been proved that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model cannot be applied for the crystallization processes of the studied silica gels.

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Abstract  

A comparative kinetic analysis on the thermal decomposition of tartaric acid and potassium tartrate under non-isothermal conditions was performed. The non-isothermal kinetic parameters were determined by the following four methods: integral isoconversional method suggested by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO method); differential isoconversional method suggested by Friedman; Budrugeac-Segal method and Non-Parametric-Kinetic (NKP) method suggested by Sempere and Nomen and modified by Vlase and Doca. The comparison of the results obtaining by these methods leads to interesting conclusions. The experimental data were obtained in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 K min−1. The less speculative kinetic analysis was possible by the NPK method.

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Abstract  

Phenylenediammonium dibromide (PDADBr) salts have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The thermal decomposition of PDADBr has been studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Kinetic parameters have been evaluated using model fitting and isoconversional methods. The thermolytic pathways have also been suggested which involve proton transfer as a primary step to regenerate parent amine and HBr. Interaction between amine and HBr at higher temperature yields gaseous products.

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Abstract  

Kinetics of exothermal decomposition of 2-nitrophenylhydrazine (2-NPH) and 4-nitrophenylhydrazine (4-NPH) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The isoconversional methods, Friedman and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, were applied to determine the activation parameters from the common analysis of multiple curves measured at different heating rates. For the processes involving two-step reactions the multivariate non-linear regression was used. A good agreement between the experimental and the fitted data was found.

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Abstract  

The isoconversional methods (Friedman and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa) as well as the invariant kinetic parameters method (IKP) were used in order to work the TG data corresponding to the thermal dissociation of smithsonite. As a result we mention a mechanism change at T≈671 K. For T>671 K, which corresponds to heating rates in the range 0.57– 8.06 K min–1, a reaction order model with 1<n≤1.4 describes the experimental data.

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Abstract  

A crystallization kinetics analysis of several polypropylene-polyethylene (PP-PE), PP-rich copolymers was made by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization was studied via calorimetric measurements at different cooling rates. Several additives were added to the base material. Some test samples were subjected to artificial ageing processes. A modified isoconversional method was used to describe the crystallization process under non-isothermal conditions. The value of the Avrami parameter was determined for primary and secondary crystallization.

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Abstract  

The evaporation of octanoic (caprylic) acid was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (temperature range: 300–600 K) under a nitrogen dynamic atmosphere (heating rates: 0.16, 0.31, 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 K min−1). Kinetic plots for a zero-order process were constructed based on the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy for the evaporation process was calculated via both the Arrhenius plot and Vyazovkin’s isoconversional model-free method.

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Abstract  

The combustion of two different sewage sludges and a semianthracite coal was studied and compared by thermogravimetric analysis. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data were used to evaluate the Arrhenius parameters (activation energy and the pre-exponential factor) of the combustion of these carbonaceous materials. The paper reports on the application of model-free isoconversional methods for evaluating and comparing the corresponding activation energy of the combustion process.

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