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A survey was conducted to evaluate the presence and prevalence of Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV) in Croatian domestic pigs by means of PCR targeting the NS1 gene fragment of PBoV. This study included testing of faecal samples collected from 10 small commercial farms and 11 small backyard holdings in Croatia. The presence of PBoV was confirmed by PCR in 24 out of 57 composite faecal samples from small commercial farms and in 12 out of 43 composite faecal samples from small backyard holdings. The PCR products of 18 positive samples were sequenced for genotyping. PBoV sequences grouped into the PBoV-a, PBoV-b and PBoV-c groups with 90.81% to 99.25% nucleotide identity. All Croatian PBoV sequences showed a high nucleotide and amino acid identity with PBoV sequences from China and Hong Kong, the United States, Sweden, and Slovenia. These results clearly show that PBoV is circulating among the domestic pig population in Croatia.

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The main goal of our work was to develop a rapid, simple, and economical DNA extraction method for food (especially for meat products) analysis. This extraction and purification procedure was based on the three-phase partitioning (TPP) method. The developed new DNA-TPP method and Wizard DNA Clean-Up System (Promega, USA) have been compared concerning extraction efficiency, purity and DNA suitability for amplification. The quality and quantity of the purified DNA solutions were controlled by spectrophotometer and the amplification efficiency by simple qualitative PCR. All of prepared DNA solutions were pure enough for the PCR and contained appropriate quantity of DNA. Thus, 118 bp length amplicons could have been obtained by the specific lectin-gene PCR in all cases. This method proved to be an alternative one to isolate DNA from meat samples simply and economically.

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. Genet. 1994 89 811 813 Katto, M.C., Endo, R.T., Nasuda, S. 2004. A PCR-based marker for

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Alexandra Valenčáková
,
P. Bálent
,
M. Húska
,
F. Novotný
, and
Lenka Luptáková

Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection of sows is reported from a pig farm in Slovakia. Spores were detected by direct microscopic visualisation in the faeces of 25 out of 27 sows (92.6%). This finding was also supported serologically by the presence of specific anti-E. intestinalis antibodies and by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This is the first report on E. intestinalis infection of swine in Europe.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
C. Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez
,
S. Villaseñor-Alvarado
,
Florentina Zurita-Martínez
,
O. Castellanos-Hernández
,
Araceli Rodríguez-Sahagún
,
M. Isabel Torres-Morán
,
D. Rojas-Bravo
, and
M. Gutiérrez-Lomelí

. 1983 1 19 21 Demeke, T., Jenkins, G. R. (2010) Influence of DNA extraction methods, PCR inhibitors and quantification

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B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains have been associated with gastro-intestinal infections due to enterotoxins production. The possibility of differentiating between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis is a real need in preventing intoxication and in monitoring potentially contaminated foods. The use of DNA comparison provides clearer results than classical microbiological methods in distinguishing B. cereus from B. thuringiensis . The use of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by Endonuclease Restriction (RE) made the distinction possible in spite of the huge similarity between the two closely related species.

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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are spread throughout the world, including Slovenia, where the first evidence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was found in 1996. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and genetic characteristics of SRLV infection in Slovenia in order to classify our strains in relation to other known SRLV strains worldwide as well as to establish molecular techniques in concordance with serology. In this study, 340 goats and sheep were tested. Serological examination revealed that 57% of the goats and only 14% of the sheep were seropositive. The results of this study also show that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in this study is less reliable than ELISA, with only 60.6% of the seropositive animals being PCR positive. Thirty-eight nucleotide sequences of the gag region encoding the matrix protein were determined and compared to sequences derived from the GenBank, revealing that Slovenian SRLV strains belong to sequence groups A and B, being maedivisna virus (MVV) and CAEV-like, respectively. In one goat herd, the presence of more than one genotype was confirmed and the majority of goat SRLV sequences were more closely related to MVV than to CAEV prototype strains.

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] makes the availability of rapid and reliable diagnostic approaches desirable. First polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were rapidly established [ 2 ] and made available by organizations like the Center of Disease Control (CDC) [ 3, 4 ] or the

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Dajana Davitkov
,
Darko Davitkov
,
Milos Vucicevic
,
Ljubodrag Stanisic
,
Milena Radakovic
,
Uros Glavinic
, and
Zoran Stanimirovic

Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it. A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection in donkeys tested with multiplex PCR was 50%. There was no B. caballi-positive sample. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Altered haematological parameters in donkeys can lead to a decrease in working capacity and production performance. Further molecular research and long-term monitoring of equine piroplasmosis is needed in Serbia and throughout Europe.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors:
Zaira Moure
,
Elena Cuadros
,
Daniel Pablo-Marcos
,
María José Reina
,
Inés de Benito
, and
Ana Belén Campo

on real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), are the main tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, the diagnosis was initially centralized at reference hospitals, with well-equipped microbiology departments and qualified staff [ 2 , 3 ]. Within a few weeks, new

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