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Abstract  

The peak temperature (T p) and different temperature (ΔT) are the basic information in the differential thermal analysis (DTA). Considering the kinetic relation and the heat equilibrium in DTA, a correctional differential kinetic equation (containing T p and ΔT parameter) is proposed. In the dehydration reaction of CaC2O4·H2O, the activation energy calculated from the new equation showed some smaller than that from Kissinger equation, but some bigger than that from Piloyan equation.

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Summary A comparative study of the non-isothermal decomposition of the dl-lactate hydrates of magnesium, calcium and strontium has been made with that of the dl-lactate hydrates chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) keeping dry air as the purge gas and the heating rate maintained at 10 K min-1. While the dl-lactates of manganese(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) followed single step decomposition scheme suggesting that dehydration and decomposition steps overlapped, the dehydration steps of the other compounds were distinct. &-T plots of none of the dehydration steps showed any induction period, indicating no physical desorption, nucleation or branching. Neither the & max-values nor the onset temperatures of the dehydration steps did show any pattern. The TG data of the dehydration steps have also been analyzed using the Freeman-Carroll, Horowitz-Metzger, Coats-Redfern, Zsakó, Fuoss-Salyer-Wilson and Karkhanavala-Dharwadkar methods. Values of order of reaction, activation energy and Arrhenius factor have been approximated and compared. There are similarities in the activation energy values for the dehydration steps (< 60 kJ mol-1 in general). It is higher with group 2 metals and lower in transition metals (maximum in magnesium and lowest in chromium and iron lactates). In cases of overlapping of dehydration and decomposition steps, the activation energy values are on the lower side with the same trend (lower in cobalt and copper cases).

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Abstract  

Resin injection repair is a common method to repair delamination damage in polymer matrix composites (PMCs). To repair high-temperature PMCs, the resin should have a very low viscosity, yet cure into a compatible adhesive with high temperature stability. Normally, thermosetting polymers with high glass transition temperatures (T g) are made from monomers with high room temperature viscosities. Among the high temperature resins, bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy, 1,1’-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)ethane), is unique because it has an extremely low viscosity of 0.09–0.12 Pa s at room temperature yet polymerizes as a cross-linked thermoset with a high T g of 274°C. BECy monomer is cured via a trimerization reaction, without volatile products, to form the high T g amorphous network. In this study, the cure kinetics of BECy is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both dynamic and isothermal experiments were carried out to obtain the kinetic parameters. An autocatalytic model was successfully used to model isothermal curing. The activation energy from the autocatalytic model is 60.3 kJ mol−1 and the total reaction order is about 2.4. The empirical DiBenedetto equation was used to evaluate the relationship between T g and conversion. The activation energy of BECy from the dynamic experiments is 66.7 kJ mol−1 based on Kissinger’s method, while isoconversional analysis shows the activation energy changes as the reaction progresses.

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Abstract  

The activation energy,E a taken from the thermal decomposition of KMnO4 and AgMnO4 was compared with the energy of the longest wavelength O→Mn ‘charge transfer’ (CT) transition. TheE a and CT correlation was found in these systems. However, such relationship can be valid when in the dissociation process the electron transfer is assumed to be the rate determining step. Thus, the permanganates as well as the previously studied chromates, are positive examples showing that in some cases, the energies derived from both methods can be comparable.

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Abstract  

A simple operation mode to determine the apparent activation energy E a is introduced. E a can be determined with a double-curve method by using a constant reaction rate (CRR) approach of Hi-Res TG. The most appropriate mechanism function f(α) and frequency factor A are determined by a single-curve method when the activation energies provided by the two methods are in good agreement with each other. The deacetylation of EVA copolymer has been used for illustration. Advantages of the CRR are discussed.

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Abstract  

The thermal decomposition kinetics of sterically hindered salen type ligand (L) and its metal complexes [M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II)] were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. A direct insertion probe-mass spectrometer (DIP-MS) was used for the characterization of metal complexes of L and all fragmentations and stable ions were characterized. The thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) plots of salen type salicylaldimine ligand and complexes showed a single step. The kinetic analysis of thermogravimetric data was performed by using the invariant kinetic parameter method (IKP). The values of the invariant activation energy, E inv and the invariant pre-exponential factor, A inv, were calculated by using Coats-Redfern (CR) method. The thermal stabilities and activation energies of metal complexes of sterically hindered salen type ligand (L) were found as Co(II)>Cu(II)>Ni(II)>L and E Cu>E Ni>E Co>L. Also, the probabilities of decomposition functions were investigated. The diffusion functions (D n) are most probable for the thermal decomposition of all complexes.

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Calculation of the kinetic parameters

Thermal decomposition of some phenol stabilizers on the basis of thermoanalytical data

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: O. N. Nikulicheva, V. P. Fadeeva, and V. A. Logvinenko

The paper reports the calculation of kinetic parameters (activation energy, pre-exponent and reaction order) of thermodegradation of some phenol stabilizers. For this purpose, a software package for IBM-compatible personal computers is proposed. The first calculation of kinetic parameters (E, Z, n) was carried out for these compounds. The package can be applied for kinetic calculations on the thermodegradation of other substances.

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Abstract  

An isothermal dehydration of equilibrium swollen poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel in the temperature range from 306 to 361 K was investigated. The specific parameters connected with shape of the conversion curves were defined. The activation parameters (E, lnA) of the isothermal dehydration of equilibrium swollen poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel were calculated, using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA), ‘initial rate’ and ’stationary point’ methods. The reaction models for the investigated dehydration are determined using the ‘model-fitting’ method. It was established that both, the reaction model and activation parameters of the hydrogel dehydration were completely different for the isothermal process than for the non-isothermal one. It was found that the increase in dehydration temperature lead to the changes in isothermal kinetic model for the investigated hydrogel dehydration. It was established that the apparent activation energy (E) of hydrogel dehydration is similar to the value of the molar enthalpy of water evaporation.

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Abstract  

In this work the influence of Cu admixtures on the crystallization process of amorphous Fe-Si-B alloys is studied, based on measurements of differential thermal calorimetry of the series Fe75-xCuxSi9B16 (x=0, 1, 2, 2.8 and 3.5) during their heating with different heating rates. The first crystallization stage can not be traced for any of the amounts of Cu content examined, while the second stage is observed only when the Cu content is 1 at%. The activation energy as estimated with Kissinger's method for the third crystallization stage has a mean value of 326 kJ mol-1 and with the isoconversional Flynn, Wall and Ozawa method is almost constant when 0.05<a<0.6 and exhibits a small monotical decrease when a>0.6. The main crystallization peak can not be described by means of a single JMA-type function.

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Abstract  

The thermal degradation of the epoxy systems diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (BADGE n=0)/1, 2 diamine cyclohexane (DCH) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (BADGE n=0)/1, 2 diaminecyclohexane (DCH) containing calcium carbonate filler immersed and not immersed in hydrochloric acid have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis in order to compare their decomposition processes and to determine the reaction mechanism of the degradation processes. The value of the activation energies, necessary for this study, were calculated using various integral and differential methods. Analysis of the results suggests that hydrochloric acid does not affect the decomposition of the epoxy network and that the reaction mechanisms produce sigmoidal-type curves for the systems not immersed in HCl and deceleration curves for the same systems immersed.

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