The definition of dose-response relationships in man is the essential requisite to set scientifically health protection standards
for the evaluation of a safe level exposure of humans to heavy metals. The derivation of these relationships requires sequential
multidisciplinary informations including data on metabolic patterns and biochemical effects in mammals. Unfortunately, sufficient
data are not available to establish dose-response curves expecially in long term-low level exposure conditions and a need
exists to gather such informations for each metal on absorption, distribution and excretion in laboratory animals and humans.
This paper: (1) discuss main problems related to the use of NAA in metallobiochemistry of present levels of trace elements;
(2) report data on the current applications of NAA in metallobiochemistry in relation to the work carried out in the context
of a project Heavy Metal Pollution of CEC JRC—Ispra. Applications deal with in vivo studies on laboratory animals, in vitro
studies on biochemical systems and experiments on tissues of human origin; (3) discuss the perspectives of the use of the
nuclear techniques in the environmental toxicology.
Authors:V. Virág, T. Varjas, Z. Gyöngyi, G. Somlyai, I. Ember, and E. Nádasi
Despite many different trials, no effective dietotherapy exists for curing enormous weight loss caused by malignant diseases yet. The present study was aimed at determining in an animal model, weather some natural products might be included in the dietotherapy of cancerous patients with cachexia. Tumour was transplanted into Fischer 344 rats drinking either seabuckthorn extract, green tea, deuterium depleted water, trace elements preparation, fruits’ extract or multivitamin solution. Weight loss, tumour growth and expression of Ha-ras gene were determined. All the investigated natural products have significantly decreased tumour growth, and trace elements preparation has significantly decreased weight loss. Green tea, seabuckthorn extract and deuterium depleted water have notably diminished Ha-ras gene expression. Our results suggest that these natural products may be useful in inhibiting tumour growth, and some of them may be applied in the dietotherapy of cancer-related weight loss.
The proportion of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosprins from invasive clinical samples has risen in Hungary from 5.1 per cent in 2006 to 15.5 per cent in 2011. The prevalence of ESBL-production in E. coli of animal origin remains unknown. During the first stage of a probe forty-five human and 18 animal ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated in 2006-2007 were investigated. The human strains were representatively selected from a collection of 113 ESBL-producing isolates sent to the national reference center from local laboratories across the country. A variety of ESBLs were detected (SHV-2, -5, -12, CTX-M-32) with CTX-M-15 being the most common in human and CTX-M-1 the dominant in animal isolates. Genetic characterization revealed that thirty-six human isolates (80 per cent) belonged to either the phylogenetic group (PG) B2 or D. Conversely, 15 animal isolates (83 per cent) proved to be members of the A and B1 commensal PGs. Furthermore 46 per cent of human isolates (21/45) from 12 centres belonged to the international O25-ST131/B2 clone while nine isolates from seven centers showed the O15 serotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) detected 22 and 11 diverse pulsotypes among 45 human and 18 animal isolates, respectively. The human and animal strains did not share any pulsotypes.
Authors:U. Avcıbaşı, H. Demiroğlu, P. Ünak, F. Müftüler, Ç. İçhedef, and F. Gümüşer
Bleomycins (BLMs; BLM, A2, and B2) were labeled with 131I and radiopharmaceutical potentials were investigated using animal models in this study. Quality control procedures were
carried out using thin layer radiochromatography (TLRC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and liquid chromatography
(LC/MS/MS). Labeling yields of radiolabeled BLMs were found to be 90, 68, and 71%, respectively. HPLC chromatograms were taken
for BLM and cold iodinated BLM (127I-BLM). Five peaks were detected for BLM and three peaks for 127I-BLM in the HPLC studies. Two peaks belong to isomers of BLM. The isomers of BLM were purified with using HPLC. Biological
activity of BLM was determined on male Albino Wistar rats by biodistribution and scintigraphic studies were performed for
BLMs by using New Zelland rabbits. The biodistribution results of 131I-BLM showed high uptake in the stomach, the bladder, the prostate, the testicle, and the spinal cord in rats. Scintigraphic
results on rabbits agrees with that of biodistributional studies on rats. The scintigraphy of radiolabeled isomers (131I-A2 and 131I-B2) are similiarly found with that of 131I-BLM.
Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431 a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb, and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child.
Authors:M. Anke, S. Holzinger, M. Seifert, R. Müller, and U. Schäfer
Anke, M. & Seifert, M.
(2007): The biological and toxicological importance of molybdenum in the environment and in the nutrition of plants, animals and man. Part 1: Molybdenum in plants.
Acta biol. Hung.
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10–8 g/g to 10–11 g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans.
Authors:M. Anke, M. Seifert, Sylvia Holzinger, R. Müller, and U. Schäfer
. (1989) Importance of molybdenum in animal and man. In: Anke, M. et al. (eds)
6 th International Trace Element Symposium. Vol. 1: Molybdenum, Vanadium
. Karl Marx University, Leipzig, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, pp. 303