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Nowadays, plants from the Lamiaceae family (rosemary, garden thyme, sage) are used mainly as natural antioxidants. However, their strong smell and taste are not desirable in the food industry. From this point of view, self-heal ( Prunella vulgaris L.) can be considered as one of the most perspective plants, since it is almost taste-and odourless, and it is rich in phenolic compounds. Taking into account its advantageous characteristics, in 2005, we were the first who examined the morphological and chemical diversity of seven populations of self-heal collected from different natural habitats in Hungary. Our results were compared to a cultivated population, too. The total phenolic compounds (measured by modified method of Singleton & Rossi , 1965) and the antioxidant powers (measured by the FRAP method), as well as the rosmarinic acid content of the samples were significantly different from each other. The highest total-phenol (0.43±0.01 mg GAE ml −1 ) and rosmarinic acid content (1.84±0.03 mg g −1 ) was observed in the one-year-old population under cultivation, while the strongest antioxidant activity was measured in the samples collected in Mátra Hills (0.35±0.04 mg AAE ml −1 ). According to our results, in the future, it will probably be possible to optimise the cultivation conditions of Prunella vulgaris providing high quality for the food-industry.

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A partial sequence of a Ty1-copia retrotransposon was isolated from the genome of the rye (Secale cereale L.) inbred line L318 using degenerate primers targeted at the RNaseH sequence. Its putative 3’LTR region exhibited similarity to LTRs of known plant retrotransposons such as BARE-1, while no significant similarity to known rye retrotransposon sequences was found. A Sequence Specific Amplification Polymorphism (SSAP) protocol employing primer designed to correspond to the putative polypurine tract was developed and used for analysis of 30 rye inbred lines. Values of the parameters calculated to evaluate the efficiency of the method as well as the results of cluster analysis demonstrate that it is a powerful tool for genetic diversity analyses of rye.

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Discovering the relationships among plant morphological and quantitative features is very important in maize breeding and production, particularly if they can be altered by selection or agro-technical methods. We examined tassel characteristics (tassel weight, tassel stalk diameter, number of primary branches, total length of branches, tassel length from lower and upper branches, Tassel Area Index) and several quantitative features (plant height, ear height, LAI, number of leaf, yield, 1000-kernel weight, test weight) of 12 hybrids in randomized block design during two subsequent years on two locations. Our aim was to find correlation between traits. Tassel weight was positively correlated with total number of branches (0.59**), number of primary branches (0.53**) and tassel area index (0.63**), and negatively correlated with plant height (−0.45**) and yield (−0.39**). Tassel area index was negatively correlated with plant height (−0.63**) and yield (−0.55**), as were number of branches and Leaf Area Index (0.39**). Number of primary branches showed medium correlation with plant height (−0.43**). Test weight correlated negatively with plant height, ear height, yield, leaf area index (LAI) and 1000-kernel weight. Because a number of these traits are highly heritable, these correlations could be used as a basis for indirect selection of special features in maize breeding programs.

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Salinity is one of the most serious agricultural problems throughout the world. The objectives of these studies were: 1. to determine if salt tolerance can be enhanced by combining characters related to salt tolerance (salt exclusion, and high growth rate and grain yield in saline conditions) and 2. to study the genetic basis of salt tolerance in doubled haploid (DH) lines developed using wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) × maize ( Zea mays L.) crosses. The 47 DH lines in experiment 1 and 22 DH lines in experiment 2 and their parents were grown in a controlled environment cabinet in nutrient solution with or without addition of 150 mM NaCl. Under the saline condition, the DH lines mean was significantly higher than mid-parental values for shoot fresh weight (SFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root fresh weight (RFW), whole plant fresh weight (PFW), plant height (PH), number of tillers per plant (TNP), number of spikelets per spike (SNS), number of grains per spike (GNS), grain yield per plant (GYP), 100-grain weight (GW) and plant biomass (PB). Some DHs showed trangressive segregation for salt tolerance as determined by greater SFW, SDW, RFW, PFW, PH, TNP, SNS, GNS, GYP, GW and PB than the better parent. The genetic variances were greater than the error variances for all measured characters except K content in saline conditions. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for all the characters studied in saline and control conditions. Salt exclusion was an important aspect of salt tolerance as Na content of leaves was negatively correlated with all growth characters at an early stage of growth, and with grain yield and yield components. We concluded that the higher salt tolerance of some DHs was due to the combination of genetic characters responsible for salt tolerance and salt tolerance is an inherited character.

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The flowing-eluent-wall (FEW) procedure is suitable for single and multi-channel on-line overpressured-layer chromatographic (OPLC) separation by operational segmentation of a non-segmented adsorbent bed. One pump only is used to deliver mobile phase and the samples can be injected in parallel on to the non-segmented layer in specific areas determined by the positions of inlet troughs. To prevent mixing of samples from adjacent lanes, mobile phase and samples are introduced to the layer at the sample-introduction positions and at the sides, so the bed is divided into active parts, where separation is performed, and non-active parts, where there is no separation. The FEW arrangement can be used at the inlet (FEW-I) or at both inlet and outlet (FEW-I/O) enabling separate detection and collection of the separation and FEW lines. The OPLC 50 system with the four-channel FEW-I/O configuration is suitable for fully off-line parallel separations and for four-channel fully on-line separations. One or two-channel on-line separations can be achieved by inserting the appropriate cassette. The newly developed experimental OPLC 100 separation unit has the FEW-I/O arrangement and applies 10 MPa external pressure to the surface of 5 cm × 20 cm layers. By use of the appropriate cassette fully off-line and one or two-channel fully on-line separation can be performed. Because of the 10-MPa external pressure the system enables more efficient fully off-line separation than systems of previous generations. Fully on-line separation can also be performed with aliquot detection, a new type of on-line detection of partially mixed samples in which the regions where mixing of parallel samples occurs is excluded. This enables more efficient separation than the original FEW-I/O arrangement.

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Abstract

A new species, Hyalesthes (Homalesthes) sagittus sp. n., of the family Cixiidae (Cixiinae, Pentastirini) is described from the Krasnodar Territory. The new species belongs to the Hyalesthes productus species group known from the Western Mediterranean and the Middle East. Natural disjunctive Western Mediterranean – Caucasian distribution as well as unintentional introduction of Auchenorrhyncha taxa are discussed.

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Abstract  

Thermal stability of vegetative cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum was studied by counting viable fractions and determining DSC curves of their suspensions. DSC curves in the 5–99°C range showed a series of endothermic transitions between 50 and 60°C, where the heat destruction of cells occurred. Heat denaturation of DNA required a higher temperature than cell killing. Thermal death was strongly influenced by the pH, composition and NaCl content of the suspending buffer. A mathematical model developed by us enabled comparison of DSC peak temperatures and temperatures required for loss of viability.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
E. Tománková
,
J. Balík
,
I. Soural
,
P. Bednář
, and
B. Papoušková

This study presents findings from comparing the properties of anthocyanin pigments: i. malvidin-3-glucoside (Mal-3-G), the most significant anthocyanin present in young red wine; ii. Vitisin A (5-carboxypyranomalvidin-3-glucoside), a major product from a reaction induced in red wine between Mal-3-G and pyruvic acid during its ageing. These pigments were determined and compared to the absorption spectrum in 200–770 nm at various pH values, such results including the ability of cation Al3+ to change the values of absorbance. Changes in the colour parameters L* a* b* were determined in the CIELAB colour space of Mal-3-G and Vitisin A in relation to pH and the addition of AlCl3. Both coloured compounds were investigated for their resistance to discoloration by sulphur dioxide. Total antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods (FRAP, DPPH), and the values were compared to other phenols.

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Wild Origanum vulgare populations in Hungary have been analysed. In 2010 the morphological variability of 11 populations in five shires was investigated, the features of habitats were also described. The difference in elevation between the lowest and highest locality is 630 m. Nine plant associations, four soil types, variable pH between 4.81–7.96 and humus content from 0.54% to 6.97% were determined. Among the examined individual plants the maximum length of stem was 107 cm, the highest number of branches was 14 pairs, furthermore procumbent and mellow stems were also found. The defined colours of inflorescences are dyes of pink or purple. Despite to these we found individuals in one population with white flowers, green bracts and calyces.

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