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Equity issues in policymaking are difficult to resolve because they are linked not only to the economic situation but also to social constraints and political conflicts within a country. This is even more true in the case of post-socialist economies during their transition to a market system in the era of globalisation. The historical and irreversible process of liberalisation and integration of capital, goods and services, and labour markets into one world market, as well as the gradual construction of new institutions and the process of privatisation cause a significant shift in the income pattern of post-socialist emerging markets. Contrary to expectations, inequality increases affecting the standard of living and long-term growth. While globalisation contributes to the long-term acceleration of economic growth and offers a chance for many countries and regions to catch up with more advanced economies, it results in growing inequality both between the countries and within them. On average, the standard of living increases, but so does the gap between the rich and the poor. Therefore, equality issues should always be of concern to policymakers, especially in the early years of the change of regime in post-socialist transition economies.

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During the second decade of the twenty-first century, documentation in electronic format has come to form a normal part of the workplace for all professional translators. The aim of this article is to present the results of the acquisition of the instrumental sub-competence, which is based on the use of electronic resources. These results are part of empirical-experimental research carried out by the PACTE group on Translation Competence Acquisition. In this study, the evolution of the acquisition of this sub-competence for five groups of translation students, from the first year of their degree course to their entry into the labour market, was measured using a methodological design that simulates a longitudinal study. The experiment was carried out in 2011 with 130 students on the Translation and Interpreting degree course. Five indicators related to the direct and inverse translation processes are analysed: number of resources, time taken on searches, time taken on searches at each stage, number and variety of searches. These indicators are then correlated with the quality of the final product of the translation process: translation acceptability. The results produced by the translation students are compared with those obtained in the Translation Competence experiment, carried out by the PACTE group in 2005−2006 with 35 professional translators.1

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This article presents the findings of a qualitative research project which aimed to map out the political evaluations and the social effects of the changing concept of family and the changing forms of family life. By interviewing political and economic decision-makers we intended to highlight the goals and the motives of the differenct family policy approaches, the characteristic features of the family concepts reflected by the policy-makers' decisions, as well as the relationship between state family policies and labor market policies on the one hand, and equal treatment expectations concerning both genders, on the other. On the basis of interviews conducted with ordinary people we examined how much people's lives are practically infuenced by the family policy measures introduced by the political and the economic decision makers. According to our findings the two different categories of respondents saw specific family policy issues in different ways - however, their interpretations of family policy as a whole were rather convergent. The importance of providing equality of opportunity for men and women, increasing the female employment rate, acknowledging the plurality of family lifestyles, reconciling work and family life - being European expectations as well as conditions of a worthy life - seemed to be overshadowed by the demographic issues of fertility and procreation.

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The purpose of this analysis is to shed light on distribution of poverty within the social structure. Using comparable national survey data from Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Hungary we determine to what extent social determinants of poverty observed in the capitalist West are also at work in the specific context of East European societies. Second area of inquiry, here, concerns the formation of the uinderclass. In searching for a post-communist underclass this analysis attemps to figure out the social location of the poor relative to positions occupied by intelligentsia, other non-manual categories, working class, peasants, and owners. The districtive characteistics of the Western underclass are labor market detachment, social isolatio, and material seprivation. Using discrimination analysis we examine the placement of the poor within the social structure relative to ovvupationally based class categories. This analysis shows that in multidimensional space as defined in terms of social origin, educational achievements, housing conditions, material possessions, and ethnicity there is no significant differences between the poor and ocupationally-based class categories in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. contrariwise, significant distinctions of this kind appear in Romania, Slovakia and Russia. In interpretation of these findings we seek to answer the question whether after decade of political and economic transformations, unique features of poverty in Eastern Europe tend to intermingle with universal patterns.

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Review of Sociology
Authors:
György Lengyel
,
László Lőrincz
,
Viktória Siklós
, and
Dániel Füleki

The study investigates the digital divide concerning computer literacy in Hungary. It examines the differences of computer literacy of people with different social-demographic characteristics (gender, settlement type, education, labor market presence and income). It also investigates the intentions to learn computer skills. In this respect, smaller differences have been found then in the case of actual knowledge, which predicts the narrowing down of digital divide in the future. An attempt has been made to identify the institutional, technical and primordial conditions in everyday life that may influence both computer literacy and inclination to master the computer, and hence may function as “bridges” over the digital divide. Four of these factors have been studied: access to computers at the workplace, public internet access at the settlement, communication via cellular phone and effect of the family members' ITC knowledge. Statistical analysis and in-depth interviews were used as methods of examination. Based on logistic regression models it was found that the bridging factors exert weak or insignificant influence on the willingness to learn computer skills - if they are controlled - so these factors alone are insufficient to bridge the digital divide.

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Deconstructing the diverse meaning behind the common metaphor “Little America”, this paper explores widely disparate ethnic identity conceptions and inter-ethnic relations in two regions of Transylvania, showing them as dependent on the ways in which each region was integrated into changing patterns of global labor. Regional ethnic identity and relations in the Jiu Valley coal producing region and in the mixed agro-industrial Fǎgǎraş zone vary greatly. In the former, ethnic identity was downplayed and inter-ethnic relations always kept on an even keel owing to the particular process of regional settlement and the common integration of the region’s ethnic groups into the hard coal industry that dominated the Valley from the middle of the 18th century. In the latter region, ethnic relations were frequently tense due to a highly discrete ethnic-based division of labor and organization of political hierarchy. Despite these differences, citizens of each region expressed their ethnic dynamic through use of the “Little America” metaphor. However, in the Jiu Valley this referred to alleged ethnic peace of cooperating national groups, while in Fǎgǎraş this notion referred to the dream of struggling for social mobility and differentiation. The paper thus shows how such basic ethnic conceptions, shaped by the treatment of regional labor in successive phases of the global economy, influence a wide range of differing attitudes toward diverse social and political processes, including socialist development policies and the modern global labor market.

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Abstract

Adults learn when they actively engage in meaningful activities. Meaningfulness is an extremely subjective factor, which depends on experiences, values, attitudes and much more. “The ways in which adults learn in and through the workplace are rooted in educational trajectories and their complex intertwining with social institutions (of labour market, workplace, community) and social roles (of employee, citizen, family member) at different stages of the life-course” (Kersh et al., 2011, 355). The interplay between work, studies and lifeworld is the focus of this study, conducted at the University College Copenhagen in 2020–2021. At the College, and in teacher training in particular, we are asking two important questions these days: How can we establish an engaging learning culture in our educational program? How can we create space for all students to find the relevant content to engage with? How can this be done when our students are so diverse according to age, life and work experiences, life situation and life interests? In this article, I analyse my own workplace learning and professional development during my first 2 years at University College, where I have been working on transforming my experience from the university to a new context – a professional teacher education program at University College.

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The sphere of analysis in this article includes settlements in the north of Hungary. They are located in the north of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, in the area that attracted a labor force to the former Metallurgical Works of Ózd. The most considerable stratification of society of the rural and poor noble population that lived in the settlements neighboring Ózd, which was inhabited since the Middle Ages, happened when in the former industrial town the demand for the labor force of the gradually expanding works extended and changed the society of the neighboring villages. After 1945, the process continued, and it attracted the inhabitants of the settlements located within a 50 kilometer radius to take part in industrial employment. Metallurgy, which offered a secure, permanent living as well as mining, which was typical of the region, formed laborers and miners from the native peasants living close to migrating workers and sometimes created dynasties of workers through several generations. The employment of women came to the fore in time: apart from housekeeping, which was demanding, the girls and mothers could do heavy manual work, so they appeared on the labor market as earners as well.

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Rendészeti közösségi oldalak alkalmazása a szaknyelvoktatásban

The Use of Policing Social Networking Sites in Teaching Technical Languages

Educatio
Author:
Erna Uricska

Összefoglaló. A felsőoktatás egyik fontos feladata, hogy igazodjon a munkaerőpiac kihívásaihoz. Korábban még nem létező, digitális képességekre épülő pozíciók jelentek meg az utóbbi években, amelyek ellátásához a digitális olvasás- és írástudás, valamint a kommunikáció fejlesztése elengedhetetlen. A tanulmány célja a hallgatók jelenlegi digitális és verbális kommunikációs szintjének és azok fejlesztési lehetőségeinek bemutatása a rendészeti szaknyelvi órák keretében. Bemutatjuk a különböző nyelvtanítási módszerek és nyelvtanulási stratégiák alkalmazhatóságát, melyre építve ismertetjük a tervezett empirikus vizsgálatunk legfontosabb jellemzőit, melyet a Nemzeti Közszolgálati Egyetem Rendészettudományi Karán a rendészeti szaknyelvet tanuló hallgatók körében valósítunk majd meg.

Summary. One of the main tasks of higher education is to adapt to the challenges of the labour market. New positions have emerged nowadays that can be filled only by those possessing appropriate digital and communication skills, thus these jobs require these skills on a daily basis. The aim of the study is to present the students’ actual digital and verbal communication level and the possible ways of their improvement in ESP (English for Specific Purposes) classes. We present the applicability of various language teaching methods and language learning strategies, and relying on them, we present the main characteristics of our planned empirical research that will be carried out with the students of the Faculty of Law Enforcement at the University of Public Service.

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Középiskolai diákok munkához és továbbtanuláshoz fűződő viszonya

High School Students Attitudes to Work and Further Education

Educatio
Author:
Zsófia Kocsis

Absztrakt:

Kutatásunkban olyan Hajdú-Bihar megyei középiskolákat kerestünk fel, ahol magas a hátrányos helyzetű tanulók aránya. A 9. és 11. évfolyam tanulóinak a továbbtanulási terveit és munkatapasztalatait vizsgáltuk, online és papíralapú kérdőívek segítségével. A diákok céljai között kismértékben jelent meg a továbbtanulási szándék, a munkaerőpiacon való elhelyezkedés fontosabb volt számukra. A diákok egy része már rendszeresen vállal munkát a középiskolai évei alatt, azonban nincs szignifikáns összefüggés a munkavállalás és a szülők foglalkoztatottsága között. Továbbá megfigyelhető volt, hogy a munkavállaló diákokban talán a munkatapasztalataik révén jobban körvonalazódtak jövőbeli céljaik és továbbtanulásra vonatkozó terveik.ldásait felhasználva a vizsgálat módszereihez keres fejlesztő támpontokat.

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