An analysis of the patents filed and scientific papers published and abstracted in theJournal of Current Laser Abstracts (JCLA) for the period 1967–95 indicates that innovative activity in laser science and technology was at its peak in the early
70s. However, scientific activity surpassed the innovative activity in the early 80s. There was a continuous shift in emphasis
from “applications of lasers” to “experimental laser research” and to “theoretical laser research”. Further analysis of the
1840 patents field in 1970–71, 1975–76, and 1980–85 indicates that most of the firms filing patents were situated in USA and
thus USA is the leading country filing patents in this area followed by Japan. “Spectroscopy of laser output” followed by
“Communication applications of laser” got the maximum emphasis.
In recent years, several projects were sponsored by NISSAT of the Goverment of India to map Indian Science. As a part of it,
a database (COMPENDEX) in engineering field was analysed. It has been found that engineers in India publish their articles
mostly in journals; almost all of them publish in English language. They publish in a selected few journals. Only a few of
the institutions are concentrated in engineering research. It has been observed that research output in applied physics, light
& optics, bioengineering and information science are increasing both at the world and India level. In the area of energy technology
metallurgical engineering and food technology, research output is decreasing at both levels.
Mathematics research in India, as reflected by papers indexed inMathsci 1988–1998, is quantified and mapped. Statistics, quantum theory and general topology are the three subfields contributing
the most to India's output in mathematics research, followed by special functions, economics and operations research, and
relativity and gravitational theory. Indian Statistical Institute and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research are the two leading
publishers of research papers. Unlike in many other fields, Calcutta publishes the largest number of papers in mathematics,
followed by Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai and Bangalore. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Delhi are the
leading states. Researchers from 257 institutions spread over 134 cities/towns have published 17,308 papers in the 11 years.
About 92% of these papers have appeared in 877 journals published from 62 countries. Journals published in the USA, UK and
the Netherlands are popular with Indian mathematicians. Of the 36 journals that have published at least a hundred papers,
20 are Indian journals of which only two are indexed in Journal Citation Reports. In all, about 38.5% of papers have been published in Indian journals, as against about 70% in agriculture, 55% in life sciences,
33.5% in medicine and 20% in physics. In the later years, there has been a moderate shift to non-Indian journals. Close to
78% of papers have come from universities and colleges and 13% from the institutions under science related departments. Almost
all papers in high impact journals are physics related and most of them have come from institutions under the Department of
Atomic Energy. Over 15% of the 9760 papers published during 1993–1998 are internationally coauthored. In all of science, as
seen from Science Citation Index, 14% of Indian papers were internationally coauthored in 1991 and 17.6% in 1998. The USA, Canada, and Germany are the important
collaborating nations, followed by France, Italy, Japan and the UK.
Authors:B. Gupta, Praveen Sharma, and C. Karisiddappa
The paper discusses the application of three well known diffusion models and their modified versions to the growth of publication
data in four selected fields of S&T. It is observed that all the three models in their modified versions generally improve
their performance in terms of parameter values, fit statistics, and graphical fit to the data. The most appropriate model
is generally seen to be the modified exponential-logistic model.
The topic of fuzzy set theory was examined using the occurrence of phrases in bibliographic records. Records containing the word fuzzy, were downloaded from over 100 databases, and from these records, phrases were extracted surrounding the word fuzzy. A methodology was developed to trim this list of phrases to a list of high frequency phrases relevant to fuzzy set theory. This list of phrases was in turn used to extract records from the original downloaded set, which were (algorithmically) relevant to fuzzy set theory. This set of records was then analysed to show the development of the topic of fuzzy set theory, the distribution of the fuzzy phrases over time and the frequency distribution of the fuzzy phrases. In addition, the field of the bibliographic record in which the phrase occurred was examined, as well as the first appearance of a particular fuzzy phrase.
Authors:B.M. Gupta, Suresh Kumar, S. Sangam, and C.R. Karisiddappa
The main objectives of this study are: (a) to find the applicability of selected growth models to the growth of publications in six sub-disciplines of social sciences, namely anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, and sociology in the world; and (b) to verify the criteria for selecting the most appropriate growth model suggested by Eggheand Rao (1992).