Thirty four elements (Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the second set of Chinese geochemical standard reference materials (sediments from GSD-9 to GSD-12, soils from GSS-1 to GSS-8, rocks from GSR-1 to GSR-6) using both thermal and epithermal irradiations. Irradiation schemes designed to utilise short, medium and long-lived nuclides were employed in order to analyse major, minor and trace elements with different half-lives. The gamma-ray spectra were measured by Ge(Li) and HP(Ge) detectors. Relevant nuclear data and possible interferences are listed, and analytical results are presented and discussed.
Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis
to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods
were applied in connection with chemical or radiochemical separations, and results for vanadium were compared with those found
by purely instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significantly lower results indicate losses or incomplete dissolution,
which makes SRM 1575 Pine Needles and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves less satisfactory than SRM 1570 Spinach. A reference value of
1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable
to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration.
Standard reference materials, normally used to check accuracy and precision of analytical methods or for interlaboratory comparisons,
are proposed for use as multielement irradiation standards in neutron activation analysis (NAA). The advantages are simplicity
of operation, and elimination of errors inherent in the preparation of a large number of synthetic standards at the trace
element level. Examples of the approach are illustrated in the analysis of geological materials, soils, sediments, meteorites,
lunar samples, coal and fly ash using the USGS diabase W-1 as the irradiation standard. Plant materials and animal tissue
are analyzed using NBS Orchard Leaves as the irradiation standard. Best values for four popular SRM's (W-1, Bowen's Kale,
Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver) are tabulated to facilitate further use of the proposed approach to multielement neutron
Authors:R. Filby, G. Van Berkel, A. Bragg, A. Joubert, W. Robison, and C. Grimm
National Bureau of Standards residual fuel oil Standard Reference Materials, SRM 1619, 1620a, 1634a, and former SRM 1634 were analyzed for 20 trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine whether these materials are suitable trace element standards for elements other than the 6 elements certified in SRM 1634a. The SRM 1634a is a suitable standard for Ni, V, Se, Na, Zn, As, Cr, Fe, Ce, Sm and La but Co, Ba, Nd, Cs, Eu, Sc, and Sb appear to be heterogeneously distributed and are probably present in mineral particulates. The SRM 1619 is a convenient standard for V and for low Ni content oils, but SRM 1620a does not appear to be a suitable standard for any trace element investigated.
Authors:M. Pham, M. Betti, P. Povinec, M. Benmansour, R. Bojanowski, P. Bouisset, E. Calvo, G. Ham, E. Holm, M. Hult, C. Ilchmann, M. Kloster, G. Kanisch, M. Köhler, J. La Rosa, F. Legarda, M. Llauradó, A. Nourredine, J.-S. Oh, M. Pellicciari, U. Rieth, A. Rodriguez y Baena, J. Sanchez-Cabeza, H. Satake, J. Schikowski, M. Takeishi, H. Thébault, and Z. Varga
A new Reference Material (RM) for radionuclides in mussel (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) from the Mediterranean Sea (IAEA-437) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Four radionuclides
(40K, 234U, 238U, and 239+240Pu) have been certified, and information values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for nine radionuclides
(137Cs, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, and 241Am). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (90Sr, 129I, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 240Pu) are also reported. The RM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in mussel
samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in
200 g units.
Authors:F. S. Tagliaferro, E. A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M. A. Bacchi
A random sampling was carried out in the coffee beans collected for the preparation of the organic green coffee reference
material in view of assessing the homogeneity and the presence of soil as impurity. Fifteen samples were taken for the between-sample
homogeneity evaluation. One of the samples was selected and 10 test portions withdrawn for the within-sample homogeneity evaluation.
Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The F-test demonstrated that the material is homogeneous for Ca, Co, Cs, K and Sc, but not homogeneous for Br, Fe, Na, Rb and Zn.
Results of terrigenous elements suggested negligible soil contamination in the raw material.
Individual samples of several sets of plants (lichens, tobacco, spruce needles, grass, botanical reference materials) show highly significant correlations of Al, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Th, Ti and V with Sc. These correlations result from the terrigenous part of aerosols deposited on and measured together with the plants. The composition of this contamination is almost uniform among the different plant sets and can be approximated by the composition of the upper continental crust. The mass of the terrigenous material ranges from <1 to >100 mg/g plant. Its presence is expected to lead to concentrations of the above and of other elements that deviate substantially from those of plants without contamination. This is proved by the comparison of two sets of spruce needles, one of which was measured without and the other after removal of the aerosol.
This work has been motivated by the need to establish reference materials from locally available sources. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) with Ge(Li) detector has been used to determine 26 elements in seven homogeneous clay samples with a wide range of composition. Short half-life nuclides (10s-10 m) were used to assay Na, Mg, K, Tl, Al, V, Mn, Ba, Dy, Ca and U by a fast rabbit transfer system. The long-lived nuclides were used to assay Sc, Sm, Cr, Eu, Ce, Cs, La, Fe, Lu, Hf, Co, Rb, Ta, Sb, and Pa(Th) after decay of24Na. The approach was purely instrumental. The accuracy of the resutls was tested by atomic absorption spectrometriy (AAS).
Authors:M. Pham, M. Betti, P. Povinec, V. Alfimov, D. Biddulph, J. Gastaud, W. Kieser, J. López Gutiérrez, G. Possnert, J. Sanchez-Cabeza, and T. Suzuki
A certified reference material designed for the determination of 129I in seawater, IAEA-418 (Mediterranean Sea water) is described and the results of certification are presented. The median
of 129I concentration with 95% confidence interval was chosen as the most reliable estimates of the true value. The median, given
as the certified value, is 2.28 × 108 atom L−1 (95% confidence interval is (2.16–2.73) 108 atom L−1), or 3.19 × 10−7 Bq L−1 (95% confidence interval is (3.02–3.82) × 10−7 Bq L−1). The material is intended to be used for standardization procedures applied in accelerator mass spectrometric laboratories.
It is available in 1 L units and may be ordered via IAEA web side (www.iaea.org).
A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in seawater, IAEA-381 (Irish Sea Water), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for nine radionuclides (40K, 90Sr, 137Cs, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu,240Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am). Information on massic activities with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals are given for eight radionuclides (3H, 125Sb, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 241Pu and 244Cm). Less reported radionuclides include 60Co, 99Tc, and 242Pu. The CRM may be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in environmental water samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from the IAEA in 5 kg units.