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YUCE, A., YESOY, M. & YULUNG, N. (1996): The effect of various disinfectants and antiseptics on Candida albicans. Infeksion Dergisi -Turkish Journal of Infection , 10 (4), 361-363. The effect of various disinfectants and

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Inactivation and removing efficiency of disinfectants (Descosal and Domestos) was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans and their biofilms (2 and 72 h, 3, 7 and 14 days old, respectively). The survival of microbes was studied by pour plating and impedimetry, and the attachment by epifluorescent microscopy.In the surface test, both disinfectants were effective against both test organisms with no significant difference in their efficiency. The decreasing detection times during impedimetric measurements showed higher resistance of the older Ps. aeruginosa biofilms. Both disinfectants tested were fungicidal against C. albicans and bactericidal against Ps. aeruginosa but for biofilm removal Domestos was more efficient.

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The objective of this study was to examine antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of selected Phlomis species (Lamiaceae) growing in Turkey. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the seven species, namely P. armeniaca Willd., P. bourgaei Boiss., P. leucophracta P.H. Davis & Hub.-Mor., P. lunariifolia Sibth. & Sm., P. lycia D. Don, P. pungens Willd. var. pungens , and P. pungens var. hirta Velen. were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis , and Enterococcus faecalis for their antibacterial activity using ampicillin and oflaxocin as references. Antifungal activity of the same extracts was determined against Candida albicans using microdilution method with ketocanazole as reference. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of the Phlomis extracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines in which acyclovir for HSV-1 and oseltamivir for PI-3 were employed as reference drugs. Although both the petroleum ether and methanol extracts seemed to exert similar antibacterial activity, the methanolic extracts were observed to be more active against S. aureus and E. faecalis . On the other hand, methanolic extract of P. pungens var. pungens possessed notable antiviral activity against both type of viruses.

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The aims of this study were to isolate LAB from Thai plant-derived foods and beverages and to examine in vitro probiotic properties including b-glucosidase enzyme activity. Lactobacillus plantarum SC 359 selected from Thai pickled soybean was significantly (P<0.05) the best to perform β-glucosidase enzyme activity (0.396 U ml−1 at 18 h of incubation) out of the 227 tested strains. The strain survived in 0.30% (w/v) bile salt and had high tolerance to acidic pH with survival rates at a 2 h period of 72.24%, 85.52%, 92.64%, and 93.38% at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0, respectively. The SC 359 strain showed proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Moreover, the selected strain displayed strong antagonistic activities against Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella sonnei and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The strain was susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, rifampicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. In addition, the selected strain significantly inhibited the adherence to Caco-2 cells of E. coli, S. Typhi and Sh. sonnei (P<0.05) by 33.50 to 73.37%. The strain could obstruct the adherences of pathogens by elimination, competition, and displacement with pathogen adherences 33.62–53.92%, 26.63–59.23%, and 49.41–66.50%, respectively. Based on the results, the selected strain could be applied as functional starter for Thai fermented plant-derived foods and beverages.

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Terron, M.P., Cubero, J., Barriga, C., Ortega, E. & Rodriguez, A.B. (2003): Phagocytosis of Candida albicans and superoxide anion levels in ring dove ( Streptopelia risoria ) heterophils: Effect of melatonin. J. Neuroendocrinol. , 15

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221 Maclaren, J. A. & Armen, D. (1958): Pigmentation of Candida albicans by molybdenum. Am. J. clin. PathoL , 30 , 411-421. Pigmentation of Candida albicans by

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six media on chlamidospora production by Candida albicans . Mycopathologia , 76 , 125-128. The comparison of six media on chlamidospora production by Candida albicans . Mycopathologia

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695 699 Estevinho, M.L., Esteves, S. & Feás, X. (2011): Antifungal effect of lavender honey against Candida albicans , Candida krusei and Cryptococcus

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); Bc: Bacillus cereus 702 Roma; La: Lactobacillus acidophilus RSKK06029; Lc: Lactobacillus casei RSKK591; Ms: Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607; Ca: Candida albicans ATCC 60193; Ct: Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803; Sc: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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, S. aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 were used as bacterial strains. Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida

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