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The paper presents the results from the investigations of the effect of the local soil characteristics upon the seismic response at the surface of the Skopje city region. The SHAKE2000 computer program was used. Four soil profiles with a total thickness ranging between 7 m and 30 m were considered. The soil dynamic properties were defined by using data on the Skopje city region reported in literature. Horizontally, the soil layers were modeled as a one-dimensional soil column subjected to horizontal earthquake motion at the base. The seismic motions were defined using sets of four synthetic accelerograms compatible with the uniform hazard spectra at bedrock for return periods of 95, 475 and 1000 years. The results represent transfer functions as a representative measure of amplitude-frequency modification of local soils and absolute acceleration response spectrum at the free surface. The amplification factor was computed as a ratio between the acceleration spectra at the free surface and those at bedrock.

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Central European Geology
Authors: Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi, and Pál Sümegi

bedrock in the Carpathian Basin) . – PhD dissertation, University of Szeged, Dept. of Geology and Paleontology, 138 p. (in Hungarian) Pesty , F. 1978

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.C. Shanks , R.J. Rosenauer 1994 : Karstification without acid; bedrock dissolution by gypsum-driven dedolomitization . — Geology , 22 , pp. 995 – 998 . Boaretto , E. , I

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Central European Geology
Authors: István Marsi, Ildikó Selmeczi, László Koloszár, József Vatai, Ildikó Szentpétery, Árpád Magyari, and László Róth

1990 A Bakony hegység földtani képződményei. Magyarázó a Bakony hegység fedetlen földtani térképéhez 1 50 000 (Geology of Bakony Mountains (Hungary). Explanatory book to the bedrock

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Acta Geologica Hungarica
Authors: Sándor Kele, Lászó Korpás, Attila Demény, Péter Kovács-Pálffy, Bernadett Bajnóczi, and Zsófia Medzihradszky

In the area of the town of Tata (Hungary) there are several Quaternary travertine outcrops, of which the Porhanyó Quarry is the best-exposed one. The travertine of the Porhanyó Quarry can be vertically divided into six units. Algal and other phytoclastic and phytohermal grainstone, boundstone and floatstone are the dominant microfacies. On the walls of the quarry carbonate vents and cones were detected; these forms are indicators of former spring activity at the bottom of a shallow lake. The lake, fed by thermal springs, was formed in a siliciclastic floodplain. The upwelling thermal water brought quartz and other detrital grains from the underlying Pannonian siliciclastic sediments to the surface, concentrating them in the vents. The three main phases of lacustrine evolution were interrupted first by a drying and flooding event, followed by a fluvial-eolian event and finally by eolian sedimentation. The oxygen isotope compositions of the vents differ from the values of vertical sections and slope samples, whereas the carbon isotope compositions show less variation. The different facies migrated during the evolution of the Tata Travertine Complex due to changes in morphology and flow direction. The integrated model of lake evolution suggests an upward cooling climatic trend, beginning with a humid Mediterranean climate in the early phase and closing with a cold, dry continental one in the late phase. The Tata Travertine Complex shows a marked d13C difference from the travertine occurrences of the Buda Mts. that is attributed to local effects. The ascending solutions at Tata may have infiltrated through organic-rich bedrocks and could have carried dissolved C enriched in 12C.

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. pp. 142 - 155 . Zang, A., W. S. Fyfe 1995: Chloritisation of the hydrothermally altered bedrock at the Igarape Bahia gold deposit, Carajas, Brazil. - Mineralium Deposita 30, pp. 30 - 38

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Beek , P. , Fernàndez , M. , Saura , E. , Barbero , L. , Badics , B. , & Labrin , E. ( 2010 ). Insights in the exhumation history of the NW Zagros from bedrock and detrital apatite fission-track analysis: evidence for a long-lived orogeny

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environments and allowed preservation of the calcareous eggshells. Such a buffering effect could have originated from the catchment bedrock and surficial sediments, the geology and composition of which are known to play an important role in determining local

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AMS-based chronology assessment of the Ecse Mound investigated the bedrock and the first few artificially piled layers (Table  1 ). The radiocarbon analysis has shown that the accumulation of the bedrock was still an ongoing process at the end of the

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. Badics , E. Labrin 2010 : Insights in the exhumation history of the NW Zagros from bedrock and detrital apatite fission-track analysis

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