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The importance of the early translations, copied or printed, derived from a parallel process that fostered the development of a standard version of the Hungarian language and the norms of literary Hungarian. In Hungary Benedek Komjáti, Gábor Pesti and János Sylvester fulfilled the Erasmus program of translating and distributing the Hungarian translations of the Holy Scriptures. They knew that to achieve this they had to find the appropriate linguistic form. Therefore, they wrote also pieces in diff erent genres and did prepare Bible translations only. Due to the changes brought about by Reformation people needed new books in the vernacular in all areas of life, for example school books, catechisms, church constitution (Kirchenordnung) and of course the Bible. In the century of the Reformation, the Hungarian Protestant ministers who knew languages followed Erasmus’ example and felt their duty to translate the Holy Scriptures into Hungarian. at the end of the century the first complete Bible in Hungarian was published in Vizsoly in 1590, which was prepared by a circle of scholars. The first complete Catholic Bible translation was published in 1626 in Viennna thanks partly to György Káldi and partly to Péter Pázmány.

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References 1. Allen W. (transl. and ed.) 1993 . Translating for King James: Notes Made by a Translator of King James's Bible . Vanderbilt

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–IV. [The annonated dictionary of the Azerbaijani language] Bakı : Şərq Qərb . Cansdale , George Soper 1970 . Animals of Bible Lands . Exeter : Paternoster . CC = Grønbech , Kaare 1942 . Romanisches Wörterbuch, Türkischer Wortindex zu Codex

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Barlow, P. L. 1989. Before Mormonism: Joseph Smith’s Use of the Bible, 1820–1829. Journal of the American Academy of Religion Vol. 57. No. 4. 739–771. Barlow P L Before Mormonism

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The author’s thesis is that from the beginning of the establishment of the so-called Franko-Roman Liturgy (thus at the latest from the Carolingian era) the texts of the Bible were primarily mediated to the literate population through liturgical and liturgical-musical culture. Thus the quotation of Biblical texts was greatly influenced by their liturgical use, and the knowledge connected to them as a result of it. Texts written for a wider audience were based on passages common in, or only found in liturgical use. Such are the pericopes (designated passages of the Bible) of larger Holidays and more common events, and the sung liturgical elements connected to these Holidays, or other important dates. This background knowledge influenced not only works of a religious nature, but also chiefly secular texts, among these historiographic writings. The paper analyses a short excerpt from a Hungarian chronicle (Chronici Hungarici compositio saeculi XIV, c. 164), proving that it is a cento of commonly used, and thus well-known liturgical texts from the Bible.

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The results of recent research display an unequal distribution of early Bible translations in the Italian peninsula with a definite focus on Tuscany. Through the text analysis of a Florentine testimony, Corsiniano 1830 (kept at the Biblioteca Corsiniana in Rome), the present article wishes to sketch the aspects of a presumable Bible translation attitude and style of Italian scriptural texts in the Middle Ages. Diplomatic and interpretative transcriptions form the basis of the linguistic examination of the translation.

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James Bible. (HTTP://WWW2.CCIM.ORG/BIBLE/DCB.HTML) [3] Li, Wentian 2002. Bibliography of references to Zipf's law. (HTTP

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Structural synonymy is exhibited by sets of expressions that are capable of conveying the same denotative content but are differently constructed and hence have slightly different meanings. Synonymous structures, due to the general complexity of syntactic phenomena, are not quite coterminous semantically, stylistically, or pragmatically; hence, they are not synonyms in the strict sense. It is exactly such differences that make it possible for them to offer a choice for the language user. Formal variants, in the author's view, are sets of syntactic structures that do not exhibit any semantic diversity despite their formal differences; hence, they are freely interchangeable (or, in the case of historical phenomena, are assumed to be such on the basis of available data). The existence of formal variants is the basis of the subsequent emergence of synonymous constructions. This paper discusses variation and structural synonymy in one type of complex sentences: those involving relative clauses. The data are taken from parallel passages of six different Hungarian translations of the Bible written between 1416 and 1626, supplemented by two contemporary translations of the same passages.

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Absztrakt

Az irodalmi észt speciális egyházi nyelvként 1739-ben, az első észt nyelvű teljes bibliafordítás megjelenésének évében született meg. Jelen tanulmány terminológiai szempontból négylépcsős folyamatként írja le a sztenderd egyházi észt nyelv fejlődését. (1) Az első keresztény terminusok a XI–XV. században kerültek be a nyelvbe. (2) A német nyelvű egyházi irodalmi alkotások fordítása nagy mennyiségben a reformáció után, azaz az 1520-as évektől kezdődött el. (3) A többé-kevésbé rendszeres terminológiai fejlesztés a XVII. században vette kezdetét a Biblia fordításával. (4) A nyelv végső standardizációja az 1720-as és az 1730-as években ment végbe, amikor a Biblia fordítása befejeződött. A jelenleg is használatos észt Biblia nyelve mind a négy korábbi rétegből hordoz terminológiai nyomokat.

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Károli Gáspár volt az első magyar nyelvű Biblia fordítója, akinek munkáját az utóbbi évszázadok újrafordítói is alapvető fordításként használják fel. Károli a fordításában a korabeli terminológiát használta, ami a természeti kép megrajzolásában is hatott fordítására. Olyan szófordulatokat, a népi terminológia elemeit használta, építette be fordításába, mint pl. a zsobrák szót, ami egyféle gyenge, pejoratív tulajdonság, állapot jelzésére szolgált. A zsobrák terminus Északkelet-Magyarországon általánosan ismert, különösen a szőlő- és bortermelésben, ahol a tokaj-hegyaljai szőlőkben közértelemben is használt fogalom pl. a zsobrák furmint. Ezt a szőlő- és bortermeléssel foglalkozó, gazdálkodó Károli is ismerhette, akinek az 1502 óta írásosan jegyzett híres dűlőben, a Hétszőlőben volt a szőleje és a pincéje.

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