Wild barley, Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum (2n = 28) is a valuable source of genes that determine resistance to abiotic stresses. These resistance traits might be transferred to wheat due to the crossability of wild barley with bread wheat. The availability of reliable and rapid methods for the identification of H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromatin in a wheat background would facilitate the development of introgression wheat genotypes. For this purpose, we evaluated the applicability of eighty-seven H. vulgare EST markers for studying bread wheat – H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum substitution and addition lines. Of all of the markers studied, forty-three (49%) were amplified in H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum and wheat introgression lines. The identification of wild barley chromosomes using EST markers confirmed the GISH and C-banding data. Thus, it was established that the H. vulgare EST markers can be successfully used to identify the chromosomes of the H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum in introgression lines of wheat.
Friebe B., Kim N.S., Kuspira J., Gill B.S. (1990) Genetic and cytogenetic analyses of the A-genome of Triticum monococcum VI. Production and identification of primary trisomic using the C-banding technique
Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 1977 19 549 556 Friebe B., Gill B.S. 1994. C-band polymorphism and
As a result of crossing substituted lines Saratovskaya 29 (S29) 5R(5A) and S29 5R(5D) with line L2075 (T1RS·1BL), two homozygous wheat-rye lines were obtained in the F7 generation and identified as T5AS·5RL + T1RS·1BL and 5R(5D) + T1RS·1BL, respectively. The rye chromosomes yare of different origins: 5R originated from spring rye Onohoskaya and 1RS from winter rye Saratovskaya 5. A new Robertsonian translocation was obtained where the 5RL arm was translocated to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5A, resulting in the T5AS·5RL translocation chromosome. Two translocations, T5AS·5RL and T1RS·1BL, and one chromosome substitution, 5R(5D), were identified and confirmed to be compensating on the basis of genomic in situ hybridisation, C-banding and 1RS- and 5R-specific PCR markers. Evaluation of resistance to fungal diseases revealed that homozygous T5AS·5RL + T1RS·1BL and 5R(5D) + T1RS·1BL lines are resistant to leaf rust and powdery mildew.
The environmental concern on soil exploitation, linked to global warming by the Kyoto protocol, is responsible for increasing interest in the understanding of the role of the composition and structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) on soil carbon, C, dynamics. Thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are applied to study the thermal properties, the structure and composition of the SOM of six samples with different C contents in order to improve the interpretation of results given by thermal analysis. Results showed that the direct integral of the combustion peaks obtained by DSC and the percentage of SOM given by TG were both directly related to the quantity of total soil C. Thus, soils with higher C content showed higher energy content too. The combustion temperatures of the curves given by DSC are those reported for labile OM. NMR results indicated the presence of aliphatic C, carbohydrates, and a weak signal in the aromatic C band in all the samples that was not detected in the DSC curves. Only two samples showed carboxyl/carbonyl C which was not detected by DSC also.
The objective of this study was to continue attempts to introduce wheat chromosomes, particularly those from the B genome, into diploid rye. An allohexaploid having 2 wheat mixogenomes (1B, 2A, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6A and 7B) and 4 rye genomes (RRRR) was crossed with substitution 2× rye containing the chromosomes of the wheat Agenome except 3A, and next backcrossed with substitution rye. Karyotypes were analysed by C-banding in the produced plants of the generations F 1 , BC 1 -F 1 , and BC 1 -F 2 . In nearly all plants of the F 1 generation (except one), 4–12 wheat chromosomes were found, mainly those of the B genome. A comparison of 2 successive generations indicates that both the mean and range of numbers of wheat chromosomes in the offspring of substitution plants and substitution-addition plants changed sometimes to the advantage of wheat chromosomes but sometimes to their disadvantage. A decline was observed in the contribution of B chromosomes and of chromosomes 2A and 6A, but pollen introduced some wheat chromosomes from the male parent: 1A, 4A, 5A and 7A. Wheat B chromosomes contributed to disturbances in plant development (lack of the spike emergence stage), but usually caused spike sterility, and even the single grains produced were usually unable to germinate. As a result, wheat chromosomes of the B genome were finally completely eliminated from the analysed material. The presence of wheat chromosomes of the A genome in fertile 2× rye plants, as well as their transfer to the next generations, indicate that the A genome is more closely related to the rye genome than the B genome. Positive introgression of wheat chromatin from the A genome into 2× rye depends to a large extent on chromosome engineering by means of appropriate crossing combinations, as A chromosomes from the male parent were much better tolerated than those from the female parent.
. (1960) . The C-banding technique was carried out according to Sumner (1972) . Table 1. Composition of the medium used for lymphocyte culture RPMI-1640 Medium Sigma-Aldrich R8758 1,000 mL Fetal Bovine Serum Sigma-Aldrich F4135 200 mL
1342 1353 Friebe, B., Zeller, F.J., Mukai, Y., Forster, B.P., Bartos, P., McIntosh, R.A. 1992. Characterization of rust-resistant wheat- Agropyron intermedium derivatives by C-banding
Badaeva, E.D., Filatenko, A.A., Badaev, N.S. 1994. Cytogenetic investigation of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. and related species using the C-banding technique. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89 :622
. addition and substitution and wheat/rye translocation by C-banding and in situ hybridization). Növénytermelés , 45, 237-245. Búza (Triticum aestivum L.)/Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. addíció és búza/rozs transzlokáció kimutatása C