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The advantages brought by high resolution satellite data in activities related to flood mapping and flood monitoring are well know in the scientific community. The paper aims to prove that slighter older geospatial documents, such as historical maps, are also a valuable resource for cartographers and decision makers to achieve a better understanding of flood patterns and evolution. Some preparatory actions are needed in order to integrate the old maps into GIS environments for advanced analysis. This includes scanning, color enhancements, georeferencing, reprojection and metadata creation. To illustrate the process, the paper includes a real case scenario: the April 2006 Danube River flood. For one of the most affected sectors along the Danube, close to Rast village, three generations of historical maps (the Austrian 1:200 000 ‘degree maps’, the Romanian 1:20 000 ‘Lambert-Cholesky’ maps and the Soviet Union 1:100 000 ‘Gauss-Krüger’ maps) were processed and included in a large repository. At any time, the maps can be identified and accessed through open standard protocols like CSW and WMS. In this way, we were able to integrate and analyze the flood water masks, extracted from satellite data, along with the historical data sets. The results were very promising. It was possible to understand some flood patterns and to clearly demonstrate that, after the dike failure, the water filled up an area which in the past, before river regulation, was the natural Danube floodplain.

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. Horusitzky 1939 Budapest Duna jobbparti részének hidrogeológiája Hidrológiai Közlöny 18 1 404 (Hydrogeology of the right side of the Danube River

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Abstract

The Oligocene clay units in the Budapest area along the new metro (subway) line show different properties than most others. They are denser and of greater strength than most of the unconsolidated ones. This paper provides an overview of their engineering geologic properties using nearly 4700 physical parameter data. These data were obtained from cores representing sampling intervals of the Kiscell Clay, on the Buda side of the Danube River. Seventeen engineering geologic parameters were used in the description of the clay. The parameter analyses show that the clay behaves as a soft rock rather than a soil.

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Abstract

The Oligocene Kiscell Clay is a widespread sediment of the Budapest region. The best-evaluated parts of the deposit are found along the new Metro (subway) line (Line 4) on the Buda side of the Danube River, where cores were cut. The geomechanical parameters of the Kiscell Clay were studied and evaluated using 481 samples from 41 cores. Nearly 5000 data were processed using different statistical parameters. The results of the statistical analyses are compared with previously-described soil-mechanical parameters; regional correlations of the mechanical properties of the Kiscell Clay are made by comparison with the results of previous analyses (Görög 2007a). There are significant discrepancies in the datasets of cohesion and uniaxial compressive strength, but other parameters show better correlation. In any case these analyses provide information for the engineering geologic design and planning for underground structures.

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Budapest is famous for its thermal springs and spas and outstanding thermal water resources. In the 21st century renewable energy utilization — including the use of geothermal energy — became the focus of interest. Improving the use of the different forms of geothermal energy requires the assessment of their possibilities. The potential for deep geothermal doublet systems for direct heating in Budapest was evaluated based on the temperature conditions, the depth and reconnaissance of the carbonate reservoir. NW Buda is not appropriate for thermal water exploration. SW and SE Budapest have better temperature conditions but the lithology of the reservoir is uncertain. Beneath Pest the thermal water is well exploitable. It is obvious from the map of the region that the area is promising; however, due to the hydraulic continuity of the system, reinjection is desirable. Considering the reliability of the employed data the geothermal potential map is suitable only for general orientation and guidance.

The geothermal potential map for Groundwater-sourced Heat Pump Systems (GHPS; scale = 1:40,000) was assembled by evaluating the thickness and appearance of the gravel strata and water table, complemented by the sulfate content as an aggressive component of groundwater. The original geothermal potential map series can be used for the evaluation of potential sites in Budapest. It can be concluded that the Buda side of the Danube River is almost entirely unsuitable for shallow groundwater-based heat pump installations. The only areas under consideration are Óbuda and the riverbanks. On the Pest side, there is no gravel in the central part; the largest areas close to the river and in the immediate surroundings are uncertain, with patches of suitable and possible categories. The southern and eastern area of Pest is the most prospective for GHPS installation. The potential maps only consider natural parameters; however, installation may be strongly influenced by the urbanization and the city environment.

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T.J. Dunai 2005 Quantification of Quaternary vertical movements in the central Pannonian Basin: A review of chronologic data along the Danube River, Hungary Tectonophysics

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. , Trásy , B. , ( 2016 ). Developments in water quality monitoring and management in large river catchments using the Danube River as an example . Environmental Science and Policy , 64 , 141 – 154 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016

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Historical Research in the Great Hungarian Plain Along the Danube River] . GeoLitera , Szeged , pp. 29 – 41. (in Hungarian) Bede , Á. , A

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The results of seven new 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses and two K/Ar analyses of mineral separates of metamorphic rocks from the Transdanubian part (west of the Danube River) of the Tisza Mega-Unit is presented, and a review of the geochronological data available in the literature is given. Investigated rocks come from boreholes and include amphibolite facies rocks, mainly containing garnet, staurolite, kyanite, andalusite and sillimanite as index minerals. The investigated area covers 120 × 85 km in Transdanubia, including all tectonic units distinguished by previous authors. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar spectra of the muscovites yielded fairly well-established plateau ages ranging from 307 Ma-312 Ma in all units. Similar muscovite Ar/Ar cooling ages of ca 310 Ma were obtained from other parts of Tisza Mega-unit east of the Danube, e.g. from the kyanite-sillimanite-bearing metapelites of the Villány-Bihar Subunit (Great Plain; Lelkes-Felvári et al. 2003).

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outskirts of the village of Dunavecse, on the former floodplain of the Danube River. The soils are slightly saline and have a sandy-loamy texture, with increasing average particle size along the depth of the profile. The water table is shallow and saline

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