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.69 ± 0.08% for free radical scavenging activity DPPH, and 47,165 ± 11 mg TE/100 g DW for ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP. Based on the results, it can be recognised that the increasing PCL concentration has a positive effect on encapsulation

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.1379; R 2 = 0.9811). The TFC of the extraction-outputs has been expressed as mg quercetin equivalent/gram of dry weight (QUE/g dw). Antioxidant activities (AA) - Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay According to Benzie and Strain (1996

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evaluated according to the method described by Chaalal et al. (2018) . Likewise, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was determined according to the method described by Ydjedd et al. (2017) . 2.5 Experimental design Response surface methodology

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Milled rice from nine aromatic cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, cooking, and antioxidant properties. Physical parameters measured were milling outrun, head rice yield (HRY), and appearance (size and shape). Cooking time, water uptake ratio and elongation ratio were determined to study their cooking quality. Chemical parameters included were amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), gel consistency (GC) and alkali spreading value (ASV). Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used to study their antioxidant activity. This study revealed all rice cultivars, except Basmoti-370 and Gopalbhog, showed HRY. Besides, all rice cultivars displayed high protein content. Significant variations (P<0.05) were found in TPC and the antioxidant activities of the rice cultivars. The correlation coefficient between the TPC and the antioxidant activities was strong and statistically significant (P<0.05).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Lončarić
,
A. Pichler
,
N. Rašić
,
I. Vukoja
,
A. Leventić
, and
M. Kopjar

Nowadays, people are focusing on antioxidant-rich food due to its beneficial effect on health. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between catechin, quercetin, and gallic acid in the presence of sugars (sucrose and trehalose) in complex food matrix such as pomegranate juice. Antioxidant activity (AOA) was measured by three different methods, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In this paper, fundamental differences among used AOA measuring methods were confirmed, which can be traced back to interactions occurring between phenols and/or sugars. Even though addition of individual phenols increased AOA of mixtures, in the majority of binary and ternary mixtures antagonistic effects were observed. Positive effect of sugar addition was more pronounced in binary mixtures but the results were highly dependent on used AOA method.

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A novel functional pumpkin-based beverage fermented by Lactobacillus mali K8 (FPJ) was produced. FPJ possessed higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 270.76 μM TE/100 ml) and radical scavenging activity (RSA‒IC50, 7.56 mg ml‒1) compared with non-inoculated control (PJ) (102.99 μM TE/100 ml and IC50 52.78 mg ml‒1). Up to an IC50 of 23.71 and 5.27 mg ml‒1 of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitions were demonstrated by FPJ, close to that of acarbose (IC50 4.86 and 0.048 mg ml‒1, respectively). Oral administration of FPJ significantly lowered post-meal blood glucose levels in low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet-treated rat – a reduction of incremental areas under the curve 2334 versus 2689 mmol min l‒1. Thus, it may open new dietary measure in managing postprandial hyperglycaemia.

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Present investigation reports the variability in phenolics and activities of some enzymes involved in their metabolism in pericarp tissue of ‘Calcuttia’ and ‘Seedless’ cultivars harvested at one week interval after fruit set. Total phenolics, flavonols, and phenolic acid contents in litchi fruit pericarp increased after 49 days following fruit set (DAFS), while proanthocyanins showed a small increment initially and then decreased significantly up to maturity. Polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase activities followed the similar trend as observed in phenolic content at respective developmental stages, while peroxidase activity in pericarp was low at initial stages and increased gradually with fruit development. Higher phenolic content with low polyphenol oxidase activity in pericarp during initial stages of fruit development in ‘Seedless’ as compared to ‘Calcuttia’ cultivar suggests the slow ripening. A negative correlation between anthocyanin content and anthocyanase activity was recorded. Total phenolic constituents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity showed positive correlation with higher values of these parameters in ‘Seedless’ as compared to ‘Calcuttia’ cultivar. Knowing the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and activity of related enzymes during fruit development gives the insights into its potential application to reduce the post-harvest browning of litchi.

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Abstract

This study aims to examine the effect of hydrolysis degree (DH) on both antioxidant activity and functional properties of Acetes japonicus proteolysate (AP). Consequently, the AP showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (SA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) at DH of 66.7%. Whereas, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical (ABTS•+) SA and superoxide anion radical (O2 •–) SA of the AP peaked at DH of 75.8%. In addition, its strongest Fe2+-chelating rate was found at DH of 72.1%. In the pH range from 3 to 8, the AP showed solubility over 55% even after heat treating, foaming capacity (FC) of 5.7–80.0%, foaming stability (FS) of 2.9–77.0%, emulsifying-activity index (EAI) of 16.1–56.3 m2 g−1, and emulsifying stability index (ESI) of 12.4–156.7 min. The highest water-holding capacity (WHC) and oil-holding capacity (OHC) of the AP were observed at DH of 66.7% and 50.6%, respectively. This study enhanced value of the Acetes by producing antioxidant AP possessing functionalities.

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Abstract

Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is an important tree species that grows widely in Türkiye. In this study, Box-Behnken experimental design was created and optimised for ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive components of Turkish red pine waste bark. Extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total concentrated tannin (TCT), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were determined at experimental points. As a result of the optimisation process, optimum parameter values were found at 34.8 °C temperature, 6.5 min time and 116.3 W ultrasonic power. Under optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency was 13.16%, TPC 103.09 mg GAE/g, TCT 13.29 mg CE/g, FRAP 602.14 mg TEAC/g, and ABTS 624.51 mg TEAC/g activity results were obtained. The extracts obtained showed low in vitro toxicity against healthy cell lines (HEK-293, human embryonic kidney), proliferation of CaCo-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) and MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic adenocarcinoma) cancer cells was significantly reduced. It was also determined that this extract has lower activity against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated AChE (acetylcholinesterase)-BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) than diabetes disease associated ɑ-glucosidase and ɑ-amylase. The extracts also showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli.

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Our study involved assessing new Hungarian multi-resistant apple cultivars (‘Artemisz’, ‘Hesztia’, ‘Rosmerta’, and ‘Cordelia’) and two commercial cultivars (‘Watson Jonathan’ and ‘Prima’). The samples were evaluated by a trained assessor panel applying computer supported profile analysis with 20 descriptive sensory parameters (using ProfiSens sensory assessment software). Beside the profiles of each cultivar we also showed the significant differences between the cultivars (LSD95%, LSD99%). The nutritional values were analysed using the MANOVA statistical method, the effects of significant factors on measured values were evaluated by using Tukey (P=0.05) post-hoc test, and we determined the homogeneous and heterogeneous groups based on that. Our study showed that PCA bi-plots containing sensory and instrumental value loadings together with the scores of apple cultivars make the complex relationships of each cultivar available for comparison. The results clearly showed that the intensity of the sour taste is inversely proportional to the carbohydrate-acid ratio determined by measurements. The flesh firmness and pectin content values obtained by instrumental measurements were found to be strongly correlated sensory parameters on crispness, texture, and ripeness. PCA plots proved to be very useful in demonstrating the parallelisms between instrumental-instrumental (TPC/FRAP) and sensory-sensory (shade/colour) parameter pairs, too. Our aggregated results show that the new Hungarian resistant apple cultivars have almost as good as or even better nutritional values than ‘Prima’ and ‘Jonathan’ (the latter dominated the Hungarian apple production for several decades). The new multi-resistant cultivars renew the range of apple cultivars available on the market, and they introduce new flavours to consumers.

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