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where these actions maximise the utility of LPs and GPs and at the same time lead to the efficient allocation of resources. In contrast to the PVC model, in HGVC the role of incentive scheme is not only to harmonize the interests of LPs

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This paper investigates trade balances and unit values focusing on Hungarian-Slovenian bilateral agri-food trade flows to distinguish types of one-way and two-way trade flows, categories of price competition and categories of quality competition. We combine Gehlhar — Pick’s (GP) (2002) procedure of four trade categories with knowledge from literature on intra-industry trade (IIT) to disentangle one-way trade, which can be significant when trade between two countries is imbalanced, from two-way matched trade flows with unit values as proxies for price. By comparing the empirical results obtained using the additional categories of one-way trade and disentangled IIT types in two-way matched trade by product was found that GP’s two price and two quality competition categories and IIT types complement each other. The decomposition of GP non-price competition categories on quality competition and one-way trade illustrates that one-way trade is the most significant component of agri-food trade between Hungary and Slovenia, a finding relevant for agri-food trade of several small countries. One-way trade cannot be associated by the simultaneous export and import unit values by the product, but by some other factors of trade specialisation and comparative trade advantages of relevance for public policy makers and private business.

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. ( 2016 ): Digital Disruption – How FinTech is Forcing Banking to a Tipping Point . City GPS HM Government ( 2017 ): Customer Journey Mapping - A Guide for Practitioners . http

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Society and Economy
Authors:
Abbas Strømmen-Bakhtiar
and
Evgueni Vinogradov

( 1 ). Korpilo , S. – Virtanen , T. – Lehvävirta , S. ( 2017 ): Smartphone GPS Tracking – Inexpensive and Efficient Data Collection on Recreational Movement . Landscape and

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search and purchase history, demographic data, GPS location, etc., with which they help the consumer decision-making process. They save customers time, as well as spare them the unnecessary effort that comes from human information retrieval ( Park et al

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