The general impression of Hungarian architecture in the seventies seems rather boring. However some tendencies emerged searching for alternatives and creating a characteristic Hungarian architecture within modernism. The folk architectural tradition was only obvious authentic source of especially Hungarian architecture in the seventies both for experts and laymen. Imre Makovecz and György Csete followed this way. But their analysis of traditional forms and patterns turned into searching for general signs and symbols, authenticity of folk art was proved by its connection to the organic world, to eancestral primitiveî. National patterns became cosmic signs. Some other architects turned to foreign lands for renewing national architecture; they concentrated on England, Finland, Denmark and Japan. Following of northern romantic modernism resulted in buildings made of local materials, adjusted to local scale and landscape. The other current tendency was the architectural structuralism whose representatives were just against loosing in detailing. This design method was based on the interaction of the flexible systems and the involved random things, as a perfect solution for the Hungarian reality, with its low standard building industry and mixed elements. International methods resulted in national solutions. The two opposite movements can be explained with the different interpretation of character: whether its source is in tradition or in place.
The present paper of a series deals with the experimental characterisation of flexural toughness properties of structural concrete containing different volume of hooked-end steel fibre reinforcement (75 kg/m3, 150 kg/m3). Third-point flexural tests were carried out on steel fibre reinforced concrete beams having a cross-section of 80 mm × 85 mm with the span of 765 mm, hence the shear span to depth ratio was 3. Beams were sawn out of steel fibre reinforced slab elements (see Part I) in order to take into consideration the introduced privilege fibre orientation (I and II) and the position of the beam (Ba-a, Ba-b, Ba-c) before sawing (see Part I). Flexural toughness properties were determined considering different standard specifications, namely the method of the ASTM (American Standards for Testing Materials), the process of the JSCE (Japan Society of Civil Engineering), and the final proposal of Banthia and Trottier for the post cracking strength. Consequently, behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete was examined in bending taking into consideration different experimental parameters such as fibre content, concrete mix proportions, fibre orientation, positions of test specimens in the formwork, while experimental constants were the size of specimens, the type of fibre used and the test set-up and test arrangement.
Pierre Bourdieu: A művészeti észlelés szociológiai elméletének elemei. In: Művészetszociológia. Budapest 1978. 175–200.
Konstanty Kalinowski: Der Wiederaufbau der Altstädte in Polen und in den Japan. Österreichische Zeitschrift
: Vom Camentum zum Zement.
Bauverlag GmbH, Berlin 1964, 72 pp.
Japan Concrete Institute (JCI): Non-metallic (FRP) reinforcement for concrete structures.
Proceedings of the Third International RILEM Symposium (FRPRCS-3
In the practice of Hungarian monument preservation there are obvious stresses emerging. These stresses are signed by conflicts unfolded recently and has appeared even in electronic and printed media. The debate about the last conservation of the ruins of the late Romanesque abby church in Zsámbék, or the open public capaign against the recently built covering roof above the ruins of the XIth century coronation church in Székesfehérvár, make it obvious, that there is a serious opposition between the professionals of monument preservation and the wide society. Within the field of architecture there is another opposition between the professional architects and the professional specialists of monument preservation. The idea of rebuilding a villa on the hillside of the Buda Castle designed by Miklós Ybl created raging storm in public media as a bitter aftermath of its planning conference. The third firing line is drown between certain groups of specialists of monument preservation. The strict followers of the Chart of Athens and Venice n the chartesians n has been in a continuous debate with other free thinkers of this field. It has always around the item of reconstruction of ruins. This theoretical debate has been international looking back a history of several decades since now. The inconsequent way of handling the phenomenon of the reconstruction of the historic downtowns of Warsow and Gdansk, while the charts had been strictly prohibit the reconstruction of ruins or the Japanese practice of handling the "Ise" sanctuary impossible to fit to European chartesian theories n are all represent several aspects of the inconsistency of monument preservation theories and practice worldwide. Analysing the ruins in Zsámbék I could prove that the recent conservation is in a strict correspondence to chartesian conceptions, so the public opposition has been caused by the theoretical bases. The international problem handling techniques had used to be creating exceptions. The Document of Nara in 1995 and the Chart of Krakow in 2001 underlines the "respect" towards different cultures (Ise-symptom) whereas reinforces the original ideas spreading their validity. When the exceptions getting to be numerous in a certain scientific field the crisis is close. The crisis will lead to a changing of paradigms. After the post-modern turn point in architecture during the 60s and the 70s, I cannot understand why these ideas left the monument preservation untouched, while the post-modern way of thinking is very similar to monument preservation ideas. The basic problem in ideas can be found among the circumstances of the birth of this discipline. As the preconceptions of museology and archeology had major influence on the newborn science the historic monuments has been handled as objects of art. This viewpoint misses the special character of buildings and their vigorous survival capability. Even in museology the "dead object" concept is fading and the reconstruction of the whole culture is prevailing. I offer a new meaning for the term iintegrated monument preservationî: we have to insert our present theories into the larger context of cultural history. In front of this new background the final aim of our activity must be the rebirth of the whole spiritual world that was dormant within the objects. So we should declare the priority of the living spiritual aspects related to traditional antiquity values, and the priority of a living monument related to dead object. For me the term "integrated preservation of heritage" means the reintegration of the past both in spiritual and objective sense of the word. This is the way to regain the lost respect and legitimity of monument preservation, as the Living Heritage will fulfill the role of this field within the society.
), Assessing the effect of design parameters on optimal size of isolated PV systems for residential utilizations . In: IEEE System Integration (SII), 2014 IEEE/SICE International Symposium , Tokyo, Japan, 2014.12.13–2014.12.15. pp. 234 – 239 ., (ISBN: 978
Kohl , T. , D. Bächler , L. Rybach ( 2000 ). Steps towards a comprehensive thermo-hydraulic analysis of the HDR test site Soultz-sous-Forêts . Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May–June 2000, 2671 – 2676