. Mas Haris , MRH , Kathiresan , S . 2009 The removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions using banana pseudostem fibers . Am J Appl Sci. 6 : 1690 – 1700 . 10.3844/ajassp.2009.1690.1700 . 49
Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD.
Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass samples with different concentrations of alumina (7.58 to 14.71 mol%) were prepared by melt and quench-technique. Total Mg content in the form of MgF2+MgO was kept constant at 25 mol%. MAS glass was converted into glass-ceramics by controlled heat treatment at around 950C. Crystalline phases present in different samples were identified by powder X-ray diffraction technique. Dilatometry technique was used to measure the thermal expansion coefficient and glass transition temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study the microstructure of the glass-ceramic sample. It is seen from X-ray diffraction studies that at low Al2O3 concentrations (up to 10.5 mol%) both MgSiO3 and fluorophlogopite phases are present and at higher Al2O3 concentrations of 12.3 and 14.7 mol%, fluorophlogopite and magnesium silicate (Mg2SiO4), respectively are found as major crystalline phases. The average thermal expansion co-efficient (aavg) of the glass samples decreases systematically from 9.8 to 5.510-6C-1 and the glass transition temperature (T g) increases from 610.1 to 675C with increase in alumina content. However, in glass-ceramic samples the aavg varies in somewhat complex manner from 6.8 to 7.910-6C-1 with variation of Al2O3 content. This was thought to be due to the presence of different crystalline phases, their relative concentration and microstructure.
The multi-elemental content of sixteen glass beads and eight glass samples from archeological site Sg Mas in Bujang Valley (finding from 5 th to 14 th century) were assayed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Ten beads differed in colour and eight of them were opaque. Contents of twentyfour elements, which might be present in the samples as a flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Al, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Sc,Th, Zn and Zr were detectable in all samples. On the other hand, concentration of the elements As, Ba, Ca, Cs, Rb, Sb, Ta, Ti, U, and V were below the detection limit in some samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of color and/or opacity of the glass bead and glass samples. Although the elemental composition does not fully explain the color and opacity of the studied materials, it can still be used as fingerprint of the glass used for the bead making.
-five species. Among Cornus species, Cornus mas L. are known as the European and Asiatic cornelian cherry and are grown for their edible fruits. Wild grown cornelian cherry trees are abundant in rural areas in mostly Balkan and east European countries and
The estimation of the Re concentration factor (CF) has been carried out to provide additional field information on the biochemical similarities between Re and Tc. Re concentration in brown seaweed samples from the North Atlantic Coast were measured using ID-ICP-MS. The chemical yields were quantitative, and the concentrations were distributed within a narrow range of 65-80 ng/g d.w. CF of Re was approximately 1.2 . 104 on average, i.e., one order of magnitude less than that found for 99Tc.
The structural changes occurring during the dehydroxylation of kaolinite have been followed using flash calcination to produce kinetically frozen calcines. The percentage of dehydroxylation was varied by changing the furnace residence time or temperature and/or heating speed. These calcination conditions affected the reaction kinetics, but the products depended only on the extent of dehydroxylation.
Non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed to study the kinetics of the curing process of mixtures of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and γ-butyrolactone (γ-BL) with ytterbium triflate as an initiator. It can be deduced that the cured material consists of epoxide homopolymers with incorporated poly(ether-ester) unities, which come from the lactone incorporated into the network. The kinetic parameters, obtained using the non-isothermal isoconversional procedure, show not only the importance of the proportion of initiator but also the influence of γ-butyrolactone on the polymerization of DGEBA. The homopolymerization of DGEBA catalyzed by ytterbium triflate has an activation energy of 85.3 kJ mol−1, which decreases to 68.2 kJ mol−1 in the presence of γ-butyrolactone forming copolymers. Analysis from DSC and FTIR data showed that, when the proportion of ytterbium triflate was increased, the reaction process accelerated and the mechanism of the cationic non-linear polymerization named activated monomer (AM) became more evident than the activated chain-end mechanism (ACE). Finally, the activation energies and the pre-exponential factors were determined for both mechanisms.
in the Table 1 . The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were carried out on the Digilab FTS60s spectrometer in MIR range (400–4000 cm −1 ). The samples were prepared in the form of KBr pellets. The 31 P MAS-NMR spectra were
-N + -PW x O y were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis, XRD, 31 P MAS NMR, XPS, SEM, ICP and nitrogen adsorption/desorption in detail. Experimental Reagents All chemicals were of analytical grade, commercially