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Abstract

This paper looks at the adoption of e-government technologies from a citizen-centric, value-based point-of-view. We analyse e-government technology adoption and value creation on a large, representative Hungarian sample, using the data of the Good State Public Administration Opinion Survey. The paper examines the near total spectrum of the Hungarian government-to-citizen administration service areas: 11 e-government services, with a special focus on personal income tax administration and the use of government issued documents. The technology acceptance model and an e-government-specific adaptation of the DeLone – McLean information system (IS) success model are used as the theoretic base. Factor analysis, traditional association metrics and statistical tests are used for the analysis. Results confirm the relevance of the technology adoption factors suggested by the mainstream IS literature, while citizen-level value creation – in the form of cost or time saved, satisfaction level raised – was less demonstrable. Increasing citizens' internet trust or improving facilitating infrastructural conditions, as well as a significant value proposition in terms of time savings and ease of use would help increasing e-government service adoption levels and value creation potential.

Open access
Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Andreea-Diana Vodă
,
Gabriel Brătucu
,
Andra Ioana Maria Tudor
,
Rareș Brătucu
,
Ioana Bianca Chițu
,
Lavinia Dovleac
,
Alina Simona Tecău
, and
Adrian Trifan

Abstract

The degree of digitalization and potential of growth in this sector are the new criteria that split the countries into various groups. The aim of this research is to find an easier and faster method of assessing the level of digitalization for countries, over different periods, having a sample 10 countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The research compares and groups these countries, determining the impact of four additional variables on their digitalization level. There were combined multiple analyses including comparative, cluster and panel analysis. As a result, we defined a new standardized indicator, named Digi-Index, which can be adapted for various time ranges, countries or study groups. Academic researchers or business practitioners can use the Digi-Index, the clusters and their characteristics to build development plans for the digital sector, based on each country's conditions, potential and influence factors.

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Abstract

In a context of rapid technological change, digital manufacturing technologies bear the promise of enabling significant improvement in operational efficiency. However, evidence indicates that investing in smart digital solutions, per se, does not guarantee performance improvement. Smart factory projects may be derailed, failing to realise the expected operational benefits. This study addresses the gap between academic propositions regarding the unequivocally positive impact of digitalisation and the actual evidence.

It draws on data obtained from 18 interviews with technology providers, managers and front-line workers at 12 Hungarian manufacturing companies. We use the concepts of resource complementarity, task–technology misfit, and technology acceptance as a theoretical lens to categorise the seemingly idiosyncratic and context-specific operational problems.

We find that digital technology implementation produces inferior-to-expectations outcomes unless companies invest in and upgrade their complementary intangible resources. Four distinct, albeit strongly interrelated types of complementarities are identified: managerial, organisational, skill-related and technical complementarities. Managerial capabilities to adjust the organisational structure, improve workflows and develop a strategy to address technical problems are found to be paramount to eliminate task-technology misfit and enhance technology acceptance.

Restricted access

Collaboration between researchers from academic and non-academic organisations

A case study of co-authorship in 12 Hungarian universities

Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
A. Inzelt
and
A. Schubert

Throughout the reform process of the European university system, the importance of collaboration between actors at the academy and other areas of the economy and society are ever increasing, as evidenced by a growing number of co-authored articles and the number of citations to such works.This article analyses the characteristics of publications co-authored by Hungarian university researchers with non-academic partners. Scientometric indicators are used as primary methodological tools. Our sample was the publication output of 12 universities, which covers 90% of the university sphere’s publications, between 2001 and 2005 and was taken from the publications of Hungarian institutions of higher education appearing in the Web of Science database. The authors employed a new, important aspect in the cooperation activity of Hungarian universities: their connection with the non-academic partners. The selection and the institutional location of the co-authors resulted in an important database for further analysis. Based on the empirical analysis of the publication and citation performance data of 12 such universities the authors concluded that the proportion of citations to publications co-authored with either academic or non-academic partners is significantly higher for international partners than it is for Hungarian ones. For one publication, the proportion of citations to articles co-authored with foreign non-academic partners, such as firms or health care institutions, was five times higher than the number relating to papers co-authored with Hungarian firms or health care institutions. Higher citedness of the joint articles with the foreign country institutes than domestic partners are in harmony with observation in other countries. Generally the rate of the co-authored articles with non-academic partners is rather low. However it scatters to a great extent concerning the different universities. The presence or absence of medicine in the profile of the universities seems an important factor of that difference.

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The empirical studies in the area of Open Innovation (OI) reveal that there is a significant bias in favour of countries on the technological frontier. The present study aims to bridge this gap by examining firms in Portugal, a country at an intermediate stage of technological development. Based on 70 innovative firms, we found that whatever perspective of the OI model is considered, firms tend, on average, to share a relatively closed innovation model when compared with firms located in countries where technological development is advanced. About a quarter of the surveyed firms implemented the OI model in their innovation strategy/business, this being much more widely disseminated regarding the absorption of external knowledge/technology, with almost 40% of firms surveyed acknowledging its use in comparison with the perspective of transfer of knowledge/technology to other organisations — less than 10% provide their “surplus technology” to other organisations. This result may indicate a lack of awareness of the economic potential of making internally created technologies available to third parties, albeit this potential might also depend on other circumstances such as technology architecture (the system and interdependence of technologies).

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We argue that the information technology revolution has brought about the differentiation of secular capital-using and labour-saving direction of technical change. Based on the example of the US manufacturing industry, asset and sector specific differences in the bias of technical change are documented. While the clear ICT- and intangible capital-using bias of technical change is well-documented in the literature, this paper provides evidence for the non-ICT capital-saving bias of technical change in the fifth Kondratieff cycle. In the past decade the US manufacturing sector displayed a noticeable deceleration of capital accumulation and capital intensity increase, a trend that diverges from the one observed in the other two sectors of the economy: in agriculture and in services. Non-ICT capital-saving technical change provokes increasing divergence between the development strategies of technological followers (characterised by tangible investment-led growth, and increasing capital-output ratios), and of technological leaders (marked by increasing intangible capital-intensity and diminishing tangible capital-intensity).

Restricted access
Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Patricio Pérez
,
Marta Bengoa
, and
Adolfo Fernández

This paper uses the Jones (1995) framework to examine the contribution of imitation activities and innovative research effort on productivity growth for the US and some European leading economies. We carry out a comparative analysis for the last 50 years, with two model specifications, assuming country differences in the parameters associated with R&D effort. In the first one, the technological frontier position is determined by the country with the highest productivity, the United States. Alternatively, in the second specification, we alter the definition of the technological frontier, allowing it to transcend the leader. The empirical analysis leads to very different outcomes. The first specification estimation, using GMM techniques, indicates that American researchers are more technology growth enhancing than their European counterparts. In contrast, the results obtained for the second, using Kalman’s filter, show that when using an alternative definition of technological frontier, it is possible to observe a boost in innovation that reduces the dispersion among countries. Then, the leading European countries can take advantage; in this case, Germany exhibits the best performance, followed by the US.

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Abstract

Hungarian small- and medium-sized enterprises are facing the challenges of digitalisation and innovation to survive fierce competition in the era of Industry 4.0, and particularly of COVID-19. Survival in the heavily hit sectors depends on the degree of digitalisation and involvement in e-commerce. This paper aims to examine Hungarian SMEs’ current scale of digitalisation and adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies. It also analyses the role of the Hungarian government’s support for SMEs’ digital transformation. To this end, secondary data were collected from Eurostat, the European Commission and the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, including the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI), indices of skills and innovation from SME performance reviews and sectoral business statistics. In processing the data, the study strictly followed the European Commission’ classification protocol, complemented by a qualitative analysis of reports and programmes related to digitalisation and Industry 4.0 in Hungary. The findings reveal that there is a further need for strengthening the digitalisation and innovation capacities of Hungarian SMEs. The effects of introduced measures could not be seen yet. Hence, the Hungarian government should continue to support SMEs’ digital transformation in order to increase their role in high-tech manufacturing and knowledge-intensive services.

Open access

Abstract

The 21st century is characterized by digital transformation, which affects economic processes and social life, and results in the parallel existence of life in both online and offline spheres. Thus, the concept of citizenship should no longer be restricted to its traditional understanding, but expanded to digital citizenship as well, and it should be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century. Thus, we need to analyze responsible digital citizenship, and our research is aimed at the question of how to assess this. As a pilot, we conducted a survey among university students to understand the focal points in this field. Our results confirm that most students can be considered responsible digital citizens, and can also be classified according to various aspects of responsible digital citizenship.

Open access

Abstract

For the further development and more efficient operation of the sharing economy, a fast and inexpensive peer-to-peer payment system is an essential element. The aim of this study is to outline a prototype that ensures the automation and decentralization of processes through smart contracts without blockchain technology. The model has been built based on the narrative that a community currency created through smart contracts can promote genuine practices of sharing as opposed to the profit-oriented approach that most of the currently operating sharing economy platforms have. Features of the model, such as ease of use, high-speed transactions without transaction cost are benefits that can provide a more efficient alternative to the traditional or to the cryptocurrency-based centralized sharing economy platforms.

Open access