Authors:Aashish Mehta, Patrick Herron, Yasuyuki Motoyama, Richard Appelbaum, and Timothy Lenoir
The share of nanotechnology publications involving authors from more than one country more than doubled in the 1990s, but then fell again until 2004, before recovering somewhat during the latter years of the decade. Meanwhile, the share of nanotechnology papers involving at least one Chinese author increased substantially over the last two decades. Papers involving Chinese authors are far less likely to be internationally co-authored than papers involving authors from other countries. Nonetheless, this appears to be changing as Chinese nanotechnology research becomes more advanced. An arithmetic decomposition confirms that China's growing share of such research accounts, in large part, for the observed stagnation of international collaboration. Thus two aspects of the globalization of science can work in opposing directions: diffusion to initially less scientifically advanced countries can depress international collaboration rates, while at the same time scientific advances in such countries can reverse this trend. We find that the growth of China's scientific community explains some, but not all of the dynamics of China's international collaboration rate. We therefore provide an institutional account of these dynamics, drawing on Stichweh's [Social Science information 35(2):327–340, 1996] original paper on international scientific collaboration, which, in examining the interrelated development of national and international scientific networks, predicts a transitional phase during which science becomes a more national enterprise, followed by a phase marked by accelerating international collaboration. Validating the application of this approach, we show that Stichweh's predictions, based on European scientific communities in the 18th and 19th centuries, seem to apply to the Chinese scientific community in the 21st century.
The era of open and sustainable innovation has opened and requested new kinds of human resources (HRs) development at Korean universities. Typical academic and vocational education at universities does not effectively work in the age of technological convergence and open innovation. Knowledge and skills for Green growth and rapid technological innovation demand very skilful, broad, and complex competencies of HRs. Competencies for green growth and disruptive innovation are outlined and various methods to increase competencies at Korean universities are suggested in this study. This study explores the kinds of competencies for future society and suggests how university can contribute to cultivate talents for HRs with multi-functional and high competencies. The author takes a sketch of competence and skill structure in Korea, summarized in value chain of competencies among HRs with high competencies, HRs with medium competencies, and HRs with low competencies. Particularly the author addresses innovation oriented fields such as engineering and chemistry/pharmaceuticals, therefore, the picture can be different from typical manufacturing sectors such as automobile and shipbuilding. However, the manufacturing fields are also progressing into innovation centred sectors. And then the author explores the flow of each HRs according to levels and fields and how they affect Korean innovation system.
The recent successes of the Chinese modernisation strategy are substantiated by an array of indicators showing an impressive improvement. Irrespective of China's current growth deceleration, these indicators suggest a highly effective implementation of an ambitious roadmap that can ultimately help China to catch up and achieve a global technological leadership. Still, some scholars point to deep structural deficiencies, and maintain that these indicators – however impressive they are – merely scratch the surface, while much deeper change is required in order to maintain economic growth. Therefore, the purpose of this paper (finalized before the ongoing COVID-19 crisis) is to contribute to this burgeoning literature – documenting the outcome and analysing the implications of China's efforts to embrace a new growth model – and analyse the chances of the Chinese digital great leap forward, that is the radical transformation of its prior modernisation trajectory. Drawing on a systematic review of the literature, the author maps, presents and analyses existing indicators quantifying China's progress in shifting to this new development trajectory, identifying also the gaps in the conventional measurement approaches. According to the findings of this paper, there are several easy-to-measure indicators, often used in international comparisons, that indeed confirm the optimistic scenario of China's development prospects in the near future. On the other hand, some hard-to-quantify factors, such as the localization of knowledge and the spreading of innovation, need to be also considered. These latter show a closer association with countries' development level as well as development potential. With regards to these latter particularities, China still has a long way to go.
Authors:Tim C. E. Engels, Truyken L. B. Ossenblok, and Eric H. J. Spruyt
An analysis of the changing publication patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH) in the period 2000–2009 is presented on the basis of the VABB-SHW, a full coverage database of peer reviewed publication output in SSH developed for the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data collection took place as part of the Flemish performance-based funding system for university research. The development of the database is described and an overview of its contents presented. In terms of coverage of publications by the Web of Science we observe considerable differences across disciplines in the SSH. The overall growth rate in number of publications is over 62.1%, but varies across disciplines between 7.5 and 172.9%. Publication output grew faster in the Social Sciences than in the Humanities. A steady increase in the number and the proportion of publications in English is observed, going hand in hand with a decline in publishing in Dutch and other languages. However, no overall shift away from book publishing is observed. In the Humanities, the share of book publications even seems to be increasing. The study shows that additional full coverage regional databases are needed to be able to characterise publication output in the SSH.
Authors:Stanislaw Kosecki, Robbin Shoemaker, and Charlotte Kirk Baer
This article presents for the first time a portrait of intramural research conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). We describe the nature, characteristics, and use of USDA research based on scientometric indicators using patent analysis and three bibliometric methods: publication analysis, citation analysis, and science mapping. Our analyses are intended to be purely descriptive in nature. They demonstrate that USDA maintains several core scientific competencies and its research is much broader than and reaches well beyond traditional agricultural sciences for which it is best known. We illustrate the current status, recent trends, and clear benchmarks for planning and assessing future USDA research across an array of scientific disciplines.
There is increasing interest in assessing how sponsored research funding influences the development and trajectory of science and technology. Traditionally, linkages between research funding and subsequent results are hard to track, often requiring access to separate funding or performance reports released by researchers or sponsors. Tracing research sponsorship and output linkages is even more challenging when researchers receive multiple funding awards and collaborate with a variety of differentially-sponsored research colleagues. This article presents a novel bibliometric approach to undertaking funding acknowledgement analysis which links research outputs with their funding sources. Using this approach in the context of nanotechnology research, the article probes the funding patterns of leading countries and agencies including patterns of cross-border research sponsorship. We identify more than 91,500 nanotechnology articles published worldwide during a 12-month period in 2008–2009. About 67% of these publications include funding acknowledgements information. We compare articles reporting funding with those that do not (for reasons that may include reliance on internal core-funding rather than external awards as well as omissions in reporting). While we find some country and field differences, we judge that the level of reporting of funding sources is sufficiently high to provide a basis for analysis. The funding acknowledgement data is used to compare nanotechnology funding policies and programs in selected countries and to examine their impacts on scientific output. We also examine the internationalization of research funding through the interplay of various funding sources at national and organizational levels. We find that while most nanotechnology funding is nationally-oriented, internationalization and knowledge exchange does occur as researchers collaborate across borders. Our method offers a new approach not only in identifying the funding sources of publications but also in feasibly undertaking large-scale analyses across scientific fields, institutions and countries.
This paper provides a first-ever look at differences of centrality scores (i.e., networks) over time and across research specializations in Korea. This is a much needed development, given the variance which is effectively ignored when Science Citation Index (SCI) publications are aggregated. Three quantitative tests are provided—OLS, two sample t-tests, and unit-root tests—to establish the patterns of centrality scores across Korea over time. The unit-root test is particularly important, as it helps identify patterns of convergence in each region's centrality scores. For all other geographic regions besides Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Daejeon, there appears to be little promise—at least in the immediate future—of being network hubs. For these top three regions, though, there is a pattern of convergence in three-quarters of all research specializations, which we attribute in part to policies in the mid- and late-1990s.
Using data of Es parameters obtained at a high mid-latitude station in Germany (Juliusruh; geogr. lat.: 54º 38' daily and seasonal variations were derived and certain characteristics of these variations have been analysed during a period of changing solar activity. It has been confirmed that diurnal maxima appearing both in foEs and fbEs are generally higher around solar activity maximum than around the minimum. Seasonal maxima appearing in summer are also higher around solar activity maximum than towards the minimum. The daily variation of h'Es showed two maxima: one in the morning and another in the afternoon. The seasonal maximum of h'Es generally appeared in April or May while the minimum in October or November. All these results confirm earlier findings derived for a station in Hungary (Békéscsaba). The present study particularly intends to show changes in the diurnal variation of Es parameters associated with geomagnetic disturbances. The difference between foEs and fbEs might be used as indicator of the transparency of the Es layer, and this quantity seems to increase on days with strong geomagnetic storms. Analysing the transparency based on the maximum values appearing in the daily variations of foEs and fbEs, a rather high quantity has been derived for stormy days in the year 1971. Actually, in this year, the daily variation of h'Es was also characterised by an extremely high afternoon maximum. The wind-shear theory is generally suitable for explaining the generation of sporadic E layer at mid-latitude. The present results are not inconsistent with the points of this theory.
Authors:Lidia Kuznetsova, Sergei Koscheev, Nina Kuznetsova, and Ludmila Detusheva
calcinations of H 3 PMo 12 O 40 at the temperature of 400–450 °C resulted in the formation of a mixture of α- and β-MoO 3 [ 13 ] or anhydride (PMo 12 O38,5 ) n [ 14 ]. Not only temperature, but also the regime of heating (duration, atmosphere, etc
libertate, sicut suadenter suabiterque nos conuocat, ubi sapientia dicit 31 : «Glorificantes me in omnibus, ego glorificabo» (CL1, n.º38, año 916) abeatis, adeatis, teneadis, iurisque uestro in perpeduum uindicetis (…) aut ubi bos uoluntas fuerit