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Approximately 63 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from Egyptian home-made cheese and examined for production of antagonism. Only eight strains demonstrated inhibitory activity against spoilage microorganisms (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus ) and pathogens (i.e. E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp.). Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 produced higher antimicrobial activity with a wide range of inhibition. The agent AA11 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and retained full activity after 30 min at 100°C. Activity against sensitive cells was bactericidal but not bacteriolytic. The compound was produced during growth phase and could be extracted from the culture supernatant fluids with n-butanol. 12% SDS-PAGE analysis of 40% ammonium sulphate precipitated agent showed two peptides with molecular weights of ∼36 kDa and ∼29 kDa. No plasmid was identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus AA11 indicating that the genes encoding the inhibitory agent were located on the chromosome. These characteristics identify the inhibitory substance as a bacteriocin, designated acidocin AA11 and confer the agent an application potential as a biopreservative.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Elham Abbasi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ali Hashemi, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Abdollah Ardebili, Mehdi Goudarzi, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, Sara Davoudabadi, Ghazaleh Talebi, and Narjes Bostanghadiri

previously described [ 20 ], Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) experiments were performed. As a positive control, A. baumannii ATCC 19606 was used . Statistical analysis By using eather the Pearson χ 2 test or Fisher

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Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide that has been widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes. However, malathion has the potential to produce toxic effects in mammalian systems. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AA112 which was isolated from soil using enrichment technique could utilize the malathion as a sole carbon source and a source of energy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AA112 was able to grow in MSMPY medium containing 42.75 mg/ml malathion. However, the optimum concentration of malathion which supported the maximum bacterial growth was found to be 22. 8 mg/ml. Malathion was used as an initial source of energy and carbon when it was found without additional carbon sources (in MSM medium) while it was utilized as second source of energy and carbon in a nutrient-supplemented medium (in MSMPY medium). Moreover, lead acetate test indicated that malathion was first attacked at a sulphur site 1–2 hours after the start of incubation. TLC and IR analysis indicated that malathion was completely degraded into diethyl succinate, hydrogen sulphide and phosphates. Therefore a malathion degradation pathway was proporsed. The degradation of malathion is attributed to the genes located on the chromosome and at least three proteins of high molecular size might be involved in malathion utilization. Bacteria able to use malathion as a food source or metabolize its residues in the environment to inactive, less toxic, and harmless compounds, could be used in bioremediation of an environmental pollution caused by the pesticide.

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Prolonged (120 days) oral administration of a beta adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol hydrochloride (dose = 1.5 mg/kg body weight) resulted in an increase in the live weight of growing chicks (Gallus domesticus). Measurement of dry muscle mass and total proteins in muscle homogenates from M. pectoralis major, M. pectoralis minor suggested a muscle hypertrophy largely responsible for this live weight increase. Further, an increase in organ weight and total tissue proteins supported cardiac hypertrophy in chicks as a result of isoproterenol administration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed alterations in actin myosin profiles implying a drug induced change in phenotypic expression of myofibrillar component of both skeletal and cardiac muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment of chicks produced changes that were not much different from those recorded immediately within a fortnight.

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A lipase from the thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was produced and purified. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified lipase was immobilized on silica and its binding efficiency was found to be 60%. The enzyme took 60 min to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of immobilized lipase were same as those of the free enzyme, i.e. 8.5 and 55ºC, respectively.  The immobilized enzyme had shown marked thermostability on the elevated temperatures of 55, 60, 65 and 70ºC. The immobilized enzyme was reused for eigth cycles as it retained almost 80% of its activity. The catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme was enhanced in n-hexane and ethanol. The immobilized enzyme when used for esterification of ethanol and propionic acid showed 96% conversion in n-hexane in 12 h at 55ºC.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ghasem Bagherpour, Abbas Fooladi, Jalil Mehrabadi, Mohammad Nourani, and Behzad Einollahi

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) bacteria are the principal cause of urinary tract infections (UTI). Because these bacteria propagate intracellularly, the cellular immune response is an important factor in UTIs. Therefore, we designed a genetic construct to induce a cellular immune response. In order to develop a genetic construct that induces strong cellular immunity against this pathogen, we used the fimH synthetic gene according to mammalian codon usage, and the gene expression was compared with wild type codon usage. Initially, we designed two constructs, pVAX/fimH mam and pVAX/fimH wt, which contain mammalian and wild type codon usage, respectively. The Cos-7 cell line was transfected separately with a complex of pVAX/fimH mam-ExGene 500 poly cationic polymer and pVAX/fimH wt-ExGene 500 poly cationic polymer. Expression of the fimH gene in both constructs in COS7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting. Both of the pVAX/fimH cassettes expressed inserted fimH genes (mam and wt) in Cos-7 cells. Our results suggest that codon optimization successfully expressed the fimH gene because the fimH gene with mammalian codon usage is compatible with the eukaryotic expression system. Therefore, mammalian codon usage could be appropriate in a pVAX/fimH construct as a DNA vaccine.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: A Todorović, A Todorović, A Todorović, S Pejić, S Pejić, S Pejić, J Kasapović, J Kasapović, J Kasapović, V Stojiljković, V Stojiljković, V Stojiljković, SB Pajović, SB Pajović, SB Pajović, DT Kanazir, DT Kanazir, and DT Kanazir

In order to examine if differences in activity and inducibility of antioxidative enzymes in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus are underlying their different sensitivity to radiation, we exposed four-day-old female Wistar rats to cranial radiation of 3 Gy of g-rays. After isolation of hippocampus and cortex 1 h or 24 h following exposure, activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured and compared to unirradiated controls. MnSOD protein levels were determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. Our results showed that CuZnSOD activity in hippocampus and cortex was significantly decreased 1 h and 24 h after irradiation with 3 Gy of g-rays. MnSOD activity in both brain regions was also decreased 1 h after irradiation. 24 h following exposure, manganese SOD activity in hippocampus almost achieved control values, while in cortex it significantly exceeded the activity of the relevant controls. CAT activity in hippocampus and cortex remained stable 1 h, as well as 24 h after irradiation with 3 Gy of g-rays. MnSOD protein level in hippocampus and cortex decreased 1 h after irradiation with 3 Gy of g-rays. 24 h after exposure, MnSOD protein level in cortex was similar to control values, while in hippocampus it was still significantly decreased. We have concluded that regional differences in MnSOD radioinducibility are regulated at the level of protein synthesis, and that they represent one of the main reasons for region-specific radiosensitivity of the brain.

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Pasteurella multocida B:2 is responsible for haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes, causing severe economic losses in the developing countries. In the present study, the ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) was cloned, sequenced and compared with the previously reported ahpA gene sequence in P. multocida A:1, which is responsible for its haemolytic phenotype. E. coli DH5α cells were further transformed with recombinant plasmid carrying the ahpA gene from P. multocida B:2 (P52) but SDS-PAGE analysis failed to show the expression of haemolysin protein. Slight haemolysis was albeit observed in horse blood agar plates streaked with recombinant E. coli carrying the ahpA gene. Our study indicates that there is 99.6% similarity and 0.4% divergence between ahpA gene of P. multocida B:2 (P52) and P. multocida A:1, while membrane topology analysis has predicted that ahpA is an inner membrane protein with two strong hydrophobic regions at the N and C terminals. The presence of significant homology in ahpA sequence in A:1 and B:2 perhaps suggests a common mechanism of pathogenesis in different species of animals.

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Aim of this study is to analyze the effect of chronic administration of beta agonist isoproterenol hydrochloride (60 mg kg −1 day −1 ; 30 days) on soleus (a slow type) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a fast type) muscles in young mice. Isoproterenol resulted in significant increase in muscle weight to whole body weight ratio with no increase in hypertrophy index in soleus muscle. A significant increase in noncontractile protein collagen is also observed in both muscles but more prominent in soleus muscle. Collagen proliferation is also analyzed on sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of pepsin soluble and Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) treated pepsin insoluble collagen. Isoproterenol remolded the myofibrillar proteins in both muscles but significant increase in myofibrillar ATPase activity occurred only in soleus muscle. It is concluded that growth stimulatory effect of isoproterenol hydrochloride is more prominent in soleus than EDL muscle. Isoproterenol augmented the proliferation of non-contractile protein collagen in soleus and EDL muscles. The transformation in myofibrillar proteins caused by isoproterenol might lead to an enhancement of contractile performance.

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Androgen dependent epididymal proteins act as antigen to produce autoantibodies and affect normal fertility. In the present study, epididymal proteins were analyzed during the time of sexual maturation and their androgen dependency was studied in male albino mice. Epididymis of 21 days (Pre-pubertal), 45 days (Pubertal), 60 days (Post-pubertal), orchidectomized (15 days after surgery) and orchidectomized with testosterone-treated (15 days after treatment) mice were dissected out and analyzed. Caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis were separated and the protein extract was prepared with 0.1 M PBS for 10% SDS-PAGE analysis. Testosterone assay was performed in the experimental groups except the testosterone treated group. The electrophoretic analysis of proteins in caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis of orchidectomized animals showed the disappearance of several proteins as compared to the adult. However, the disappeared proteins started to reappear in testosterone treated animals. The results suggest that removal of testis depletes the testosterone level and causes significant alteration in epididymal proteins. These proteins need further investigation for the purpose of immunocontraception by using them as antigens.

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