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Nowadays, the Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network, combined with network RTK corrections (NRTK solution), is a widely used technique for high-accuracy positioning in real time. This “active” network realizes a reference frame and propagates it to the users. In border regions the coherence between the reference frames propagated by neighboring active networks is a critical problem. In this study the test results of post-processed and simultaneous NRTK positions at six test points located in the border region between Portugal and the Community of Andalusia, in the south west of the Iberian Peninsula, are presented. The analysis is based on two GNSS active networks present in this border region, namely RENEP (Portugal) and RAP (Community of Andalusia, Spain), a national and a local RTK network respectively, with similar characteristics. Upon comparing the post-processed position for each test point, as estimated with respect to each of the two active networks analyzed, the discrepancies found in 3D were less than 2 centimeters. The results of network-based RTK positioning were found to be successful within a 2 cm precision level in the east and north components and 4 cm for the up component. The results also confirm that the NRTK positioning accuracy is about 2 cm in horizontal and 4 cm in vertical, which can satisfy the requirement of real-time positioning users at a centimetric accuracy level, even in border regions considering extrapolated NRTK solutions.

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This paper describes an unusual halo observed on the morning of 19 January 1787 from Caspe, Spain. The most striking characteristic of this phenomenon was a vertical tail of light that appears under one of the false suns.

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Exceptional geomagnetic storms were observed in late August and early September 1859. Auroras were observed around the world, and telegraph wires were damaged. Until now, there has been no evidence published of auroral observations in Spain during this famous space weather event. This paper presents Spanish observations that show the aspect of this great aurora from Spain, and the concurrent effects on European telegraph wires. We also computed the variation of the geomagnetic declination in Spain during recent centuries to put these records into context.

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, M. Sudrie , B. Caline , J.P. Gomez , H. Corneyllie 2005 : Fault related hydrothermal dolomite bodies in early Cretaceous platform carbonates, Karrantza area (north Spain): Outcrop analogue for dolomite reservoir characterization . — 10th Congrès

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P.D. de Cosmo A. Suma 2010 A new approach to landslide geomorphological mapping using Open Source software in the Olvera area (Cadiz, Spain

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inclusions and stable isotope geochemistry of the Rodalquilar gold alunite deposit, Spain. Economic Geology , pp. 795-822. McKee, R. M. Tosdal 1995: Geology, geochronology, fluid inclusions and stable isotope

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Azambré, B., M. Rossy, F. Albaréde 1992: Petrology of the alkaline magmatism from the Cretaceous North-Pyrenean Rift Zone (France and Spain). - Eur. J. Min-eral ., 4, pp. 813-834. Petrology of the alkaline magmatism from the

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. Rdsch. 60 813 833 Márton, E., 1993: Paleomagnetism in the Mediterranean from Spain to the Aegean: a review

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Range (NE Spain): implications for source-area weathering, sorting, provenance, and tectonic setting. - Chemical Geology, 168, pp. 135 - 150 . Geochemistry of Precambrian and Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks from the Iberian Range

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-Rubio J. Rodriguez-Lázaro F. Robles 2008 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pliocene Villarroya Lake, northern Spain, from stable isotopes and trace

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