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. Witczak , K. T. ( 2010 ): Three Animal Names in Tocharian and Indo-European . Rozprawy Komisji Językowej ŁTN Vol. 55 , pp. 279 – 283 . Witczak , K. T

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veterinärmedizinischen Doktorwürde der Tieräztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Uniwersität. München 1967. Bartosiewicz 1996 = L. Bartosiewicz : Animal exploitation at the Sarmatian site of Gyoma 133. In: Cultural and

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veterinärmedizinischen Doktorwürde der Tieräztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Uniwersität. München 1967. Bartosiewicz 1995 = L. Bartosiewicz : Animals in the Urban Landscape in the Wake of the Middle Ages. Oxford 1995

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Intangible Cultural Heritage Museum International 2004 56 140 Aikawa N. 1962: Animal Protection Act, 71. Pretoria: Government Printers. Aikawa N. Animal

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The experience of socialism and its legacies in Eastern Europe created a specific context for artists’ engagement with animals and their approach to the natural world. The blueprint for building the socialist utopia had spared little concern for the environmental consequences of breakneck industrialisation, with rivers rerouted, landscapes devastated and nature viewed purely as a material resource. The welfare and interests of animals were far down the list of priorities in a system which valorised the proletariat and demanded sacrifices for the glorification of the socialist state. The cruel fate of the world’s first space traveller, Laika the dog, who was sent on a one-way mission into orbit in 1957, was symbolic of official attitudes towards animals under socialism, as well as providing a focus for feelings of empathy from human subjects that felt equally oppressed.

It was in the 1960s that live animals first entered artistic practice through happenings and performances, which occurred in parallel with the neo-avant-garde exodus from studios and galleries to enter public space and natural environments and was part of the utopian drive to abolish the distinction between art and life. However, it was only after the changes brought by the countercultural orientation of 1968, with the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, a new concern for human rights and the rise of ecological thinking that neo-avant-garde artists began to conceptually address the position of the animal. Birds turned out to be particularly appropriate living metaphors to convey the suppressed desire for freedom, as well as offering a way to explore the ethical and environmental dimensions of relations between the human and the animal.

This paper explores changing attitudes and approaches to animals in East European art of the neo-avant-garde during the Long Sixties through an examination of key works by István Harasztÿ from Hungary, Slovak artist Peter Bartoš and Petr Štembera from the Czech Republic, while considering the impact of new thinking about the natural environment across the porous ideological borders of the Cold War. Engagements with the animal were most frequently conceived in metaphorical terms as a means to talk about the human condition which, due to the specific social, historical and political circumstances of the Eastern Bloc, was particularly true of artists living under socialism.

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The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world.  2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.

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The soul of man resides in different parts of the body on each day of the month. The concerned body part should be handled with care, as if it is hurt, it causes extreme harm. The yurt, just like animals, also has a soul. The paper presents five small hand-books — from the collection of the Oriental Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, from the St. Petersburg Oriental Collection of the Russian Academy and from private possession — indicating the abode of the soul in humans, the yurt and animals.

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állatmaradványok Segesdről (Medieval and Turkish Period animal bones from Segesd, Southwestern Hungary). SMK 12 (1996) 183–222. Bartosiewicz L. Középés török kori állatmaradványok Segesdről

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Relationships between Fauna and People and the Role of Ethnozoology in Animal Conservation . Ethnobiology and Conservation 1 : 1 – 69 . Alves , Rȏmulo Romeu da Nóbrega – Filho , Gentil Alves Pereira 2007 Commercialization and Use of Snakes in North

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In the investigation of the prehistory of the Yakut language only few and not very reliable sources are at our disposal. Although these sources are very important, some are not available for the researchers, or not prepared to meet modern linguistic/philological requirements. The main aim of this paper is to present the Yakut material of Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica , a famous work of P. S. Pallas published in 1811, for further research. In addition, etymological notes and remarks on the naming conventions of Yakuts are also included. In the appendix all the Yakut materials of the Zoographia , 135 different items altogether, are presented in a systematic way, with the comparison of data from the corresponding works of D. G. Messerschmidt and J. G. Gmelin.

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