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Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. One single plant may contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, making analytics rather costly. The total bactericide capacity can be quantified by either microbiological or ecotoxicological methods. Here, the principle and possible applications of a specific bacterial bioluminescence inhibition based ecotoxicological assay are reviewed.

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Poll. 1981 16 301 315 Nealson, K. H., Hastings, J. W. (1979) Bacterial bioluminescence: its

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A recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain containing a plasmid encoding a luxAB fusion, which gave bioluminescence upon addition of an exogenous long-chain aldehyde as substrate for the endogenous luciferase enzyme, was used as test organism. Its populations were treated with 300 MPa for 20 min, or 600 MPa for 20 min at around room temperature, and this treatment is foreseen as a quality-friendly, non-thermal pasteurisation of foods. Besides the estimation of viable cell counts, the extent of pressure-induced germination and post-process development were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy, turbidimetry and luminometry. Increased heat sensitivity of pressurized spore populations was observed both by viable cell counting during a linearly programmed elevation of temperature and a simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry. This was related to pressure-induced germination of spores, although a small fraction remained ungerminated. The luciferase pool built into the spores during their formation seemed to have withstood pressurization. Spore germination was accompanied by the emergence of bioluminescence which also indicated sensitively the characteristic changes of metabolic activity running parallel with the development of untreated cell populations and that of the survivors of the hydrostatic pressure treatments when the cells were incubated in a nutrient broth.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
G. Paulovits
,
Nóra Kováts
,
A. Ács
,
Á. Ferincz
,
Anikó Kovács
,
B. Kakasi
,
Sz. Nagy
, and
Gy. Kiss

., Heinlaan, M., Kurvet, I., Kahru, A. (2008) High throughput kinetic Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay for study of toxic effects of nanoparticles. Toxicol. In Vitro 22 , 1402–1417. Kahru A

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Extended research has been carried out on the antimicrobial properties of herbs belonging to the family Asteraceae, trying to establish their potential use in natural pest control, in addition to human medicinal applications. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used. In this study the aggregate bactericide effect of four species ( Artemisia absinthium L., A. vulgaris L., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. and Achillea millefolium L.) was screened using the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. The two Artemisia species which have well-established use as antibacterial, exerted the highest toxicity. Toxicity of Chrysanthemum leucanthemum fell into the same range, although this herb has restricted use in human medicine. On the contrary, Achillea millefolium , which is widely recommended against inflammations, showed significantly lower toxicity.

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During the analysis of environmental risk posed by hazardous waste disposal sites, ecological impact on whole ecosystems should be assessed. It requires a complex testing scheme where surrogate species represent key elements of the ecosystem. However, different organisms are exposed to a differing degree, also, their sensitivity to the same contaminant may vary. A possible way to determine which test reflects most the actual toxic conditions, correlation can be calculated between the measured ecological parameter (such as growth inhibition, mortality, etc.) and  a contaminant gradient. The basic aim of this study was to determine which ecotoxicological test shows the best correlation with the measured analytical parameters. The selected tests were Lemna minor (representing primary producers), Thamnocephalus platyurus (a primary consumer organism) and Vibrio fischeri (decomposer). When testing soil samples, the Thamnocephalus test showed excellent consistency with most contaminants but was oversensitive in the case of groundwater samples. The Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test (ToxAlert) behaved in a different way, reflecting well the distribution of most contaminants in groundwater samples. Finally, Lemna test proved to be completely inadequate.

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.01112 41. Brock M . Application of bioluminescence imaging for in vivo monitoring of fungal infections . Int J Microbiol. 2012 ; 2012 . 10

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dilution methods are widely used, they may have limitations in reproducibility and time. On the other hand, newer methods like flow cytometry, bioluminescence, and impedance measurement offer higher sensitivity and throughput, but they may be costlier and

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Antonio Logrieco
,
Antonio Moretti
,
Giuseppina Mule
,
Costantino Paciolla
, and
Alberto Ritieni

357 364 Fotso, J., Smith, J.S. 2003. Evaluation of beauvericin toxicity with the bacterial bioluminescence assay and the Ames mutagenicity bioassay. Journal of Food Science

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J.C. Boothroyd 2005 Bioluminescence imaging of Toxoplasma gondii infection in living mice reveals dramatic differences between strains Infect Immun 73

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