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This paper examines the use of direct citation in the correspondence between the Egyptian Pharaoh and his officials and his Syro-Canaan vassals in the El-Amarna archive. A frequent phenomenon in the modern and ancient world alike, direct citation serves to support the writer’s claims, lay the blame on or absolve others, demonstrate loyalty, and depict distress. The examples adduced fall into four categories: authoritative, third-party, confirmative, and fabricated/ imaginary speech. Raising the question of the validity of applying modern linguistic theories to ancient sources, these types are analysed in the light of the international diplomacy that flourished in the Fertile Crescent during the 14th-century BCE.

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Tracking a devil in a textual maze

Citations from the Mudrārākṣasa in anthologies of Sanskrit poetry

Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Dániel Balogh

Viśākhadatta’s Mudrārākṣasa is somewhat unique among Sanskrit dramas in that its plot is concerned with political intrigue. Though the occurrence of certain stanzas of the Mudrārākṣasa in other (non-fiction) works has been noted even by early editors of the play, no attempt has yet been made to fully explore the textual interconnections of the play. The present paper attempts to sketch a map of the appearance of Mudrārākṣasa stanzas in anthologies of Sanskrit poetry. Such anthologies containing hundreds of well-phrased (subhāṣita) stanzas — collected from classical literature, but detached from their context and usually arranged in thematic chapters — made their appearance on the literary stage at the end of the 11th century and remain popular to the present day. Out of the total 175 stanzas of poetry in the Mudrārākṣasa, 18 occur in one or more major subhāṣita anthologies and other literary works. While 12 of these are probably indeed Viśākhadatta’s own compositions according to the testimony of the anthologies, the authorship of the remaining 6 is somewhat dubious, since they are attributed in one or more anthologies to a different source, and/or are found in texts that may be earlier than the Mudrārākṣasa. The paper argues that stanzas of poetry, mostly of a gnomic/didactic nature, could freely migrate not only from works of fiction into anthologies but also in the opposite direction. Widespread quotes that sounded relevant to a specific situation may well have been inserted into the text of dramas (and other opuses) both by the playwrights themselves and by subsequent copyists or redactors of their texts.

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A travers un pseudo récit de voyage le long du Danube L'Œillade de la comtesse Hahn-Hahn (1990) de P. Esterházy met en cause les clichés (littéraires) attachés à l'identité nationale par rapport à une identité régionale aussi problématique et à un modèle donné comme universel et aussi démythifié (l'Europe). La réception de ce texte à l'étranger nous interroge sur la possibilité de traduire l'expression d'un spécifique étroitement lié à la langue de la création littéraire.

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because they are activated more or faster – depending on the specific model – than any other form of the same paradigm ( Caramazza and Miozzo 1997 ; Dell 1986 ). 1.2 Citation-form All lexemes of a natural language are conventionally referred to by the so

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“trying to achieve a better artistic quality, by following superb examples of a glorious past.” 2 Borstlap's paraphrase of Ligeti is, not surprisingly, longer than the original citation. That quote – “I am in a prison. One wall is the avant-garde, the

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positions of professional translators in translation and publishing industries. The third category is “translation scientometrics,” which included contributions where researchers employed author citation analysis to study networks of publications, citations

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citation from Homer. This is by no means the only citation drawn from the work of this poet. Many verses are cited but they are attributed, more often than not, to the well-chosen words of Emperors. 38 One such reference appears to be of particular

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’idée traversant toute l’œuvre de Borges selon laquelle aucun texte ne voit le jour ex nihilo. Toute littérature est le produit d’innombrables textes qui l’ont précédée, ce qui permet à l’écrivain argentin d’affirmer, comme nous l’avons vu dans la citation

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kept a secret, since in 1839, when the tomb was first opened, a huge crowd was said to have gathered, and “a whole procession went to Galata”. Halász (2003) , the citation: 43. The circumstances of the excavation were summarised in detail: Köpeczi

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purpose, and, while presenting diversity, it also contributes to creating unity. Indicative of the wide use of the book is the fact that the citation index of Introducing Interpreting Studies on 22 July 2023, stands at 2,698 on Google Scholar. This means

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