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. The closure of the problem was first performed by Boussinesq, who introduced the concept of eddy viscosity. The additional turbulence stresses are then treated by increasing the molecular viscosity with an eddy viscosity. Among the classical closure

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A globális, az európai uniós vírusválság határpolitikai hatásai.

Államhatárok régi-új szerepben a Kárpát-medencében, 2020–2021

The border policy effects of the global and EU virus crises.

State borders in old and new role in the Carpathian Basin, 2020–2021
Scientia et Securitas
Zoltán Hajdú

. 3 European Commission 2020: The effect of COVID-19 induced border closures on cross-border regions. An empirical report covering the

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A koronavírus járvány hatása a villamosenergia-rendszerre mint kritikus infrastruktúrára

Impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the electricity system as critical infrastructure

Scientia et Securitas
Attila Aszódi
Bence Biró

Összefoglaló. Írásunk a magyar villamosenergia-rendszert vizsgálja a COVID–19 koronavírus-járvány időszakában. Bemutatjuk a járvány magyarországi alakulásának villamosenergia-fogyasztásra gyakorolt hatását. Elemezzük a magyar villamosenergia-fogyasztási adatokat a 2019. és a 2020. év vonatkozásában, összehasonlítjuk a fogyasztás és a GDP negyedéves változását 2020-ban, és összevetjük a magyar villamosenergia-rendszerben bekövetkezett változásokat egyes európai országok rendszerének adataival. Cikkünk végén röviden bemutatjuk a villamosenergia-rendszer mint kritikus infrastruktúra működtetésének mindennapjait a járvány alatt, amely rendszer ebben a mindenki számára megerőltető időszakban is folyamatosan biztosította a fogyasztók biztonságos és megbízható villamosenergia-ellátását.

Summary. The pandemic situation caused by the coronavirus has momentarily changed the lives of everyone in the world. With the closure of borders and the imposition of curfews, tourism practically stopped overnight, civil aviation shut down, offices and some manufacturing plants closed, people were forced to stay in their homes for months, worldwide. It must also be taken into account that intensive air travel and a globalised world economy clearly predispose the world to a greater frequency of pandemics in the future, and that society, the country and humanity as a whole must be prepared to deal more effectively with similar epidemics. This salutatory change is certainly worth analysing, as much can be learned from the current situation.

In this article, we analyse the energy aspects of the epidemic, as the virus has left a deep imprint even in this industry. For the analysis, it is essential to describe the behavior of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary and the measures taken in parallel to contain the outbreak, as these measures have had a significant impact on the country’s electricity system. We examined the electricity consumption trends for 2020 compared to 2019. We show how the consumer sides of different European electricity systems have reacted to the situation. We conclude by highlighting the changes in the critical energy infrastructure that, despite the difficulties caused by the epidemic, the Hungarian electricity system has provided the population with the electricity which is increasingly essential to our daily lives.

The current situation highlights even more that the main infrastructures of modern societies, such as industrial production plants, transport, commerce, health care, information technology and even households, cannot function without a reliable and secure electricity supply. It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure the operational conditions of the electricity system as critical infrastructure, even during a pandemic.

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in the business, political conditions and closure. Ref. [ 6 ] indicated that several internal and external causes might affect the construction firm's failure. They recommended that the firm should take into consideration the adverse effects for

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, and technological issues evolve at the same time [ 39 ]. The life cycle of a mining project can be divided into four main steps: exploration, development, operation, and closure ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3. The life cycle of a mining project (adapted from [ 40

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, “ Effect of bracket slot and archwire dimensions on anterior tooth movement during space closure in sliding mechanics: a 3-dimensional finite element study ,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop. , vol. 146 , no. 2 , pp. 166 – 174 , 2014 . [2] P

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Derivative Technique), tangent stiffness, or VCCT (Virtual Crack Closure Technique) are employed to calculate the components of the critical rate of energy release G C using the principles of LMR. A more

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. The use of glass also goes back a long way, with the perfect convenience of glass packaging brought about by the invention of the metal closure in the mid-1800s. Here is where we arrived to the period of the use of metal, plastic and associated

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movement of construction material, labor, and equipment between governorates, which lead to a slowdown in the progress of construction projects. The economic outcomes are highly affected by the market access due to slow and arbitrary closure as controlling

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